Overcrowding. Contaminated water and food.
Poor housing conditions. Shortage of blankets and clothing.
A new environment with a type of malaria against which the refugees have no protection. Stagnant water becoming a mosquito breeding ground.
Overcrowding in a region where the disease is endemic (it is often seasonal in certain places).
Helminths, particularly hookworm
Overcrowding. Poor sanitation.
Scabies (a skin disease caused by mites)
Overcrowding. Poor bodily hygiene.
Xerophthalmia (infant blindness)
Vitamin A deficiency (xerophthalmia is often provoked by measles or some other acute infection).
Malaria, hookworm, shortage or poor assimilation of iron and folate.
Injuries in an unvaccinated population. Poor obstetrical practice may cause tetanus of the newborn.
ąPeople suffering from malnutrition are particularly at risk of serious attacks of all these diseases. Good nutrition therefore constitutes an effective preventive measure.