(a) For males -- Condom (b) For females -- Copper T -- Pill Permanent methods of contraception are: (a) For males -- Vasectomy (b) For females -- Tubal ligation There are several other methods of contraception, but they are not reliable. Their failure rates range from 20 to 40 percent. These methods are: (a) Diaphram (b) Foam (c) Withdrawal (d) Rhythm (e) Mucus
B. Copper T: This device is for the females. It is a T shaped plastic device with a thin wire of copper wound round the vertical limb and two strings at its end. This is device inserted in the uterus and strings are left hanging in vagina. It weakens the seprms and does not allow the fertilized ovum to settle in the uterus. Pregnancy can occur after the removal of copper T. There are several myths about Intrauterine device like copper T These are: " IUD causes bleeding" " IUD causes sterility" " IUD strings hort penis" " IUD gets lost inside" Effectiveness: 95%
C. Pill: Pills are taken by female. Pills are known as oral contraceptive Pills contain female sex hormones. A package contains 21 pills. One pill is taken daily for 21 stopped for seven days before starting the a new package. The myths are: " Pill causes cancer" " Pill causes sterility" " Pill causes deformed babies." Effectiveness: 95%
D. Vasectomy: It is a surgical procedure for permanent contraception and is also known as "Male sterilization". It prevents sperms from enter into semen. It is a simple procedure. The Vas deferens is identified, cut and ligated on both sides. Myth: Vasectomy causes impotence" E. Tubal ligation: This is "Female sterilization." It is a prmanent method of contraception in females. It prevents sperms from meeting ovum. A small incision is given on the lower abdomen. Fallopian tube A small incision is given on the lower abdomen, Fallopian tube is identified, cut, and ligated on both the sides. A quick and simpler procedure of tubal ligation is known as "Laperosopic strilization." A pencil thick instrument called 'Laperoscope' is inserted in the abdomen near the navel of the female, fallopian tube is identified, its loop is picked up, and ligated with a small ring. Myth : "Woman becomes at after the operartion"
Pregnancy is ended by removing the baby from the uterus before 20th week of pregnancy. The procedure depends upon the duration of pregnancy. Counting is done from first day of the last menstrual period.