THE OTHER FACE OF CANCER

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REFERENCES

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267. Leading Article: The price of survival in childhood leukemia. Brit. Med. Jour ., 1:321, 1978.

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292. Cramer, W.: The new outlook on cancer. Brit. Med. Jour ., 1:175,1926.

293. Burch, P.R.J.: The Biology of Cancer: A New Approach . MTP, England, 1976.

294. Godwin-Austen, R.B.: Parkinson's Disease - A booklet for patients and their families. Parkinson's Disease Society U.K., 1977, p.1.

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298. Ellis, H.: If my wife had cancer of the breast. Brit. Med. Jour ., 1:896, 1978.

299. Hellegers, A.E.: Biologic origins of bioethical problems. In, Obstertrics and Gynecology Annual. Vol. 6, 1977. (Ed. Wynn, R.M.), Appleton- Century-Crofts, N.Y., 1977, p.1.

300. Comfort, A.: The Anxiety Makers, Panther Books, London, 1968.

301. Leading Article: Breast lumps in adolescent girls. Lancet , 1:260,1978.

302. Knox, E.G.: Multiphasic screening. Lancet , 2:1434, 1974.

303. Editorial: Multiphasic screenin general practice. Lancet , 1:29, 1978.

304. Bate, J.G.: Cervical cytology. In, Contemporary Obstetrics and Gynaecology. (Ed. Chamberlain, G.V.P.), Northwood Publ., London, 1977, p.341.

305. Knaus, W.: Modern hospital becomes a warehouse for machines. Re- printed from Washington Post in Indian Express, August 4, 1978.

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307. Wied, G.L.: Bahr., G.F., Bartels, H., and Bibbo, M.: Cancer cell identifica- tion by computer (Program TICAS). Tenth International Cancer Congress. Abstracts. Houston, Texas, U.S.A., 1970, ( Abstract 908), p.561.

308. Muhm, J.R., Brown L.R., and Crowe, J.K.: Use of computed tomography in the detection of pulmonary nodules. Mayo Clinical Proc. , 52:345, 1977.

309. Burwood, R.J.: Ultrasound in malignant disease of the abdomen: a re- view. Jour. Roy.Soc. Med., 71:100, 1978.

310. Juret, P., Delozier, T., Mandard, A.M., Couette, ZJ.E., Leplat, G., and Vernhes, J.C.: Sex of first child as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Lancet, 1:415, 1978.

311. Ritman, E.L., Robb R.A., Johnson, S.A., Chevalier, P.A., Glibert, B.K., Greenleaf, J.F., Sturm, R.E., and Wood, E.H.: Quantitative imaging of the structure and function of the heart, lungs and circulation. Mayo Clini- cal Proc ., 53:3, 1978.

312. Salmon, S.E., Hamburger, A.W., Soehnlen, B., Durie, B.G.M. Alberts, D.S., and Moon, T.E.: Quantitation of differential sensitivity of human- tumour stem cells to anticancer drugs. N. Eng. Jour. Med. , 298:1321,1978.

313. Medicine: The petri dish and the patient: Predicting which drugs will work on cancer patients. Time, June 26, 1978, p.55.

314. Stock, J.A.: The chemotherapy of cancer. In, The Biology of Cancer. (Ed. Ambrose, E.J., and Roe, F.J.C.), D. Van Nostrand Comp., London, 1966, p.176.

315. Clarkson, B.D.: Current concepts of leukemia and results of recent treat- ment programs. Transplantation Proceedings , 10:157, 1978.

316. Hersh, E.M.: Modification of host defense mechanisms. In, Cancer Medi- cine . (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III, E.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.681.

317. Editorial: Human tumours in mice and rats. Lancet , 1:138, 1978.

318. Zubrod, C.G.: Introduction. In, Cancer Medicine . (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III, E.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.601.

319. Bodey, G.P.: Infections in patients with cancer. In, Cancer Medicine . (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III. E.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.1135.

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321. Bier, A.: Quoted in Familiar Medical Quotations . (Ed. Strauss, M.B.), Little Brown & Co., Boston, 1968, p.476.

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325. Leading Article: If I had. Brit. Med. Jour ., 1:874, 1978.

326. Dudley, H.A.F.: If I had carcinoma of the middle third of the rectum. Brit. Med. Jour. , 1:1035, 1978.

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GLOSSARY

Terms have been defined with reference to medicine in general and cancer in particular. An attempt has been made to go beyond the mere dictionary meaning so as to provide a wider perspective. Related words are mentioned in parenthesis at the end of the explanation.

Adenocarcinoma Cancer arising in a gland.
Allogenic Originating in a genetically different individual, but
from the same species.
Analgesic Pain-relieving drug, such as aspirin.

Anoci-Association An association based on the Hippocratic motto

primum non nocere , meaning that the least that a
therapy should do to a patient, is to do no harm.
Antigen A substance, that on introduction into the body,
excites a highly specific response in the form of
antibody (a protein) and/or cells (lymphocytes). An
antigen's specific reactivity with antibody/cells
allows laboratory detection of its presence in blood
or tissue. Some cancers carry on their cells and/or
secrete into the blood antigens, of which the
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an example.
CEA, found most commonly with cancer of the
gastrointestinal tract, is detected in the laboratory
by demonstrating its reactivity with a specific
antibody. CEA is a normal constitutent of human
plasma, and what tests detect is its elevated level in
some cancers.
Aphthous ulcer Small, painful ulcer/s accompanying inflammation of
the mouth.
Arteriosclerosis Thickening and hardening of arteries, a common
accompaniment of aging.
Autochthonous Arising from an individual's own tissues; not
transplanted.
Benign Not threatening health or life; opposite of malignant;

 

GLOSSARY 171
non- cancerous. A benign tumour/lump has
microscopic features resembling a normal tissue.
Bronchial cancer A bronchus is a subdivision of the air-passages
beyond the trachea (windpipe). Cancer of the lung
usually starts in a large bronchus, and thus is often
referred to as bronchial cancer or bronchial
carcinoma.
Burkitt's tumour A lymphoma with characteristic microscopic picture,
commoner at younger age. Also called Burkitt's
lymphoma.
Cancerability It is the faculty of a normal cell to cancerate and thus
turn into a cancer cell.
Cancerogen A substance supposedly producing cancer. Also
called, carcinogen. A substance that assists a
cancerogen is called cocancerogen , and one that
opposes its action is called anticancerogen. Similarly,
cocarcinogen and anticarcinogen.
Cancerogenesis The production of cancer. Also called carcinogen-
esis.
Cancerologist The cancer specialist. Also called oncologist . The
speciality is called cancerology or oncology .
Cancerotrophic An agent promoting the growth of cancer.
Cancerrealism An approach to cancer based on cancerologic,
cytologic and biologic facts. Such facts constitute
cancerrealities .
Celluloma A lump or a mass made up of cells. - oma as a suffix
indicates swelling; hence, lipoma, fibroma,
astrocytoma, melanoma, etc.
Chemotherapy Thearpy by drugs.
Cholelithiasis Formation of stones in the biliary tract. Gall stones.
Choriocarcinoma, A cancer arising from the chorionic covering of a
gestational foetus, and growing in the uterus of the mother.
Chronic Any illness characterized by long duration, or frequent
recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly
progressing severity; opposite of acute.
Chronic lymphocytic Often abbreviated as CLL. A type of slowly growing
leukemia leukemia characterized by the excessive proliferation
of lymphocytes all over. A disease mainly of the
middle and old age.
Chronic myeloid Often abbreviated as CML. A type of slowly
leukemia progressing leukemia, characterized by the
excessive proliferation of granular white blood cells,
starting in the bone marrow and then appearing in

 

the blood and elsewhere. A disease mainly of the
middle and old age.
Cirrhosis A chronic disease characterized by progressive
destruction and hardening of the liver.
Collagen The fibrous protein that provides the scaffold for the
animal body, being one of the principal skeletal
substance binding cells and tissues together.
Colposcopy Examination of the vagina and cervix with an
instrument called colposcope that provides
illumination and magnification.

Cytodifferentiation The process whereby a cell changes its character to

turn into another type of cell. Also called differentia-
tion.
Cytokinetic Related to the process of cell division and prolifera-
tion the science of which is called cytokinetics.
Cytologist One specializing in the study of cells. (Cytology).
Cytotoxic Toxic or lethal to cells. X-rays and 'anticancer' drugs
are cytotoxic agents, being indiscriminately toxic to
both normal and cancerous cells.
Desenesce Rejuvenate.
Diabetes mellitus What is commonly known as diabetes is medically
termed as diabetes mellitus (sweet diabetes)
because of the patient passing sugar in the urine.
Such diabetes is to be distinguished from diabetes
insipidus, wherein the patient passes large qualities
of 'insipid' urine.
Disease The term is derived from old French desaise ( des -
absence of, and aise - ease), and really means dis-
ease or lack of ease. The etymologic emphasis has
been lost in medical science so that the word disease
is freely used even though the so-called disease - a
cancerous mass in the prostate or the breast - in no
way dis-eases the owner.
Dysplasia Literally, abnormality of a tissue. In current fashion,
it implies cellular abnormalities of the lining epithelium
of the cervix of the uterus, that 'a pathologist
recognizes as abnormal, yet not to a degree he is
willing to call cancer.'
E.coli Short form for Escherichia coli, a bacterium normally
found in billions in the human and animal intestine.
Ectopic Out of the normal place. A hormone is normally
secreted by its special gland. When it is also secreted
elsewhere by another tissue, it is called ectopic
hormone.
EKGitis A term to describe the inordinate faith of the doctor
or the patient in the diagnostic and prognostic
usefulness of the electrocardiogram (ECG),
sometimes abbreviated as EKG.
Follow-up The medical practice of periodically reassessing and
recording the condition of a patient following
diagnosis and/or treatment.
Gaussian distribution A theoretical frequency distribution that is bell
shaped, symmetrical and of infinite extent. Also
called normal distribution. Many a biologic feature,
related to health or disease, exhibits gaussian
distribution.
Gerontology Science of aging, and of the problems of the aged.
Grading A mode of describing the severity of a cancer by
grading it as Grade 1 through 4. The severity of a
cancer is assumed to be directly proportional to the
departure of its cells from normality when seen
through a microscope. A cancer belongs to Grade 1
when most of its cells are near-normal in appearance
and arrangement, and to Grade 4 when most cells
look abnormal in appearance and arrangement.
Histological Related to the study of tissue - normal or cancerous
- with a microscope. (Histology, Histologist).
Hodgkin's disease A form of lymphoma with special microscopic
features.
Hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus.
Iatrogenic Produced by a doctor. Also called iatral .
Immunological Related to the science of immunology that studies
the nature of antigen/antibody reactions and cells
that possibly mediate the immunity (defence
mechanisms) of the body against a disease. (Tumour
immunity/immunology, Immunotherapy).
Intercurrent disease The occurrence of an unrelated disease in a cancer
patient.
Leukemia Cancer of the white blood cells.
Linear accelerator Specialized machine for X-ray treatment of cancer.
Such a machine, by the tremendous acceleration it
imparts to electrons, produces high energy, X-ray
beams, that allow a patient to be treated 'in one or

 

two minutes.'
Lumpolytic An agent that causes dissolution, albeit temporary,
of a cancerous lump.
Lymphoma Cancer arising in lymphoid tissues. Unlike in
leukemias, the involvement of the bone marrow by
the cancerous cells, and their presence in the blood
stream are uncommon.
Malignancy In cancerology, used as a synonym for cancer: hence,
malignant tumour or malignant lesion. In medicine
in general, malignant implies grave severity of a
disease: thus, malignant fever, malignant
hypertension, malignant malaria. A malignant
tumour shows microscopic features supposedly
characteristic of cancer. Opposite of benign.
Mammography Study of the breast by X-rays.
Melanoma A skin cancer arising from its pigmented cells; can
also arise from the eye, mucous membrane, and
other tissues.
Metastasis Spread or transfer of disease (cancer, infection) from
its site of origin to another site nor directly connected
with it. (Metastatic, Metastasize).
Multifactorial See Polygenic inheritance.
inheritance
Mitral stenosis Narrowing of the mitral valve of the heart.
Nasopharyngeal Cancer of the nasopharynx, the region of the throat
carcinoma behind the cavity of the nose.
Nephritis Inflammation of the kidney.
Nephrosis Non-inflammatory, degenerative disorder of the
kidney.
Neoplastic Development of cancer. Neoplasm, literally meaning
development new (ly formed) tissue connotes cancer, although
such process also occurs in inflammation, wound
healing, etc.
Ontolysis Dissolution of one's own self.
Palliative Any therapeutic measure that affords relief, but no
freedom from the disease. (Palliation, Palliatable).
Pernicious anaemia A form of anaemia which, before the discovery of its
therapy with vitamin B 12 was inexorably fatal.

Polygenic inheritance The occurrence of cancer in an individual is governed by many unidentifiable genes (hence called polygenic/multi-factorial inheritance) which in coordination with the genes of the entire herd,

determine whether or not cancer would occur. And
such genetic governance in an individual is
quantitative and not qualifative. All humans can
develop cancer; only some do, for in them the
quantitative gene effect is sufficient enough to carry
them beyond a certain genetic threshold.
Polygenic inheritance has been invoked to explain
the occurrence of a wide variety of diseases ranging
from congenital malformations like cleft plata to
common diseases like peptic ulcer, heart attack,
diabetes, or hypertension.
Primary In cancerology, it refers to the site where the cancer
first originates; hence, primary site, primary cancer,
primary growth, and so on. When a cancer, taking
off from the primary site, establishes itself at other
additional site/s physically discontinuous from the
primary, it is said to have formed secondary or
metastatic cancer. From the secondary site, the
whole process of metastasis can be repeated.
Probability Etymologically and simply, it means likelihood.
Epistemologically, it implies a state of knowledge that
is less than certainly but greater than ignorance.
Epidemiologically, it means certainty at the herd level
which, being numerically smaller than the number
forming the herd, must of necessity be a matter of
chance, likelihood or probability when expressed at
an individual level. Such measurement or quantitation
of uncertainty is called probability.
The epidemiologic concept of probability can be best
amplified by acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a form
of blood cancer. Globally, it occurs at the rate of 2 to
3 cases per 100,000 population per year with little
variation from country to country. Here, the certainty
is 2 to 3 cases per 100,0
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