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1. Websters' Third New International Dictionary of the English Language unabridged.Ed. Grove, P.B., G & C, Merriam Co., Springfield, 1971

2. Virchow, R.' Quoted by Ewing, J., Pathological aspects of some prob- lems of experimental research. Jour, Cancer Research, 1:71, 1916..

3. Foulds, L.: Neoplastic Development . I. Academic Press, London, N.Y., 1969.

4. Watson, J.D.; Quoted by Greenberg, D.S., in 44.

5. Burnet, M.: Immunological Surveillance. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1970.

6. Kothari, M.L., and Mehta, Lopa A.; The Nature of Cancer, Kothari Medical Publications, Bombay,1973.

7. Love, R.; Obituary - Leslie Founds, Jour, Natl., Cancer Inst ., 53:III, 1974.

8. Hixson,J.; The Patchwork Mouse, Politics and Intrigue in the Campaign to Conquer Cancer , Anchor Press/Doubleday, N.Y. 1976.

9. Solzhenitsyn, A.; Cancer Ward. Bantam Books, N.Y. 1972.

10. Ingelfinger, F.J.; Cancer!alarm!cancer! N.Eng. Jour. Med. , 293:1319 1975.

11. Jones, H.B.: Demographic consideration of the cancer problem. Tran N.Y.Acad.Set ., 18:298, 1956.

12. Logan, W.P.D.: Cancer of the breast: no decline in mortality. WHO Chronicle , 29:462,1975.

13. Dao, T.: Quoted by Greenberg, D.S. in, 44.

14. Brody, J.E. and Holleb, A.I.: You Can Fight Cancer and Win . Quad rangle/ The New York Times Book Co., N.Y. 1977.

15. Burnet, M.: Genes, Dreams and Realities , MTP, Bucks, 1971.

16. Goodfield, J.: The Siege of Cancer , Dell Publ. Co., N.Y.1975.

17. Roe, F.J.C.: Cancer as a disease of the whole organism. In, The Biology of Cancer . (Ed. Ambrose, E.J., and Roe, F.J.C.) D.Van Nostrand, London, 1966, p.l.

18. Dawe, C.J.: Phylogeny and oncogeny. In, Neoplasms and Related Disorders of Invertebrate and Lower Vertebrate Animals. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monograph, 31:1, 1969.

19. Weiss, P.: Some introductory remarks on the cellular basis of differ entiation. Jour. Embyyolic and Exp. Morphology, 1:181, 1953.

20. Willis, R.A.: Pathology of Tumours , Butterworths, London, 1967.

21. Weinstein, I.B.: Genetic code of normal and neoplastic mammalian cells, Gann Monogr ., 4:3, 1968.

22. Glemser, B.: Man Against Cancer. Funk & Wagnalls, N.Y.1969.

23. Garb, S.: Cure for Cancer A National Goal . Springer, N.Y. 1968.

24. Comfort, A.: Aging: The Biology of Senescence. Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1964, p.57.

25. Knudson, A.G.: Genetics and Disease. McGraw-Hill, N.Y. 1965.

26. Hayflick, L.: The cell biology of human aging. N.Eng. Jour, Med. , 295:1302, 1976.

27. Griffin, G.E.: World Without Cancer: The Story of Vitamin B 17 Parts I & II. American Media, California, 1974.

28. Benn, G.: Quoted by Plessner, H.: in, On the relation of time to death. In, Man and Time: Papers from the Eranos Yearbooks. Pantheon Books, N.Y., 1957, p.249.

29. Zumoff, B., Hart, H., and Hellman, L.: Considerations of mortality in cer- tain chronic diseases. Ann. Int. Med. , 64:595, 1966.

30. Innes, J.R.M.: Malignant disease of domesticated animals. In, Cancer III . (Ed. Raven, R.W.), Butterworths, London, 1958, p.73.

31. Schlumberger, H.G.: Tumours characteristic for certain animal species: A review. Cancer Research, 17:823, 1957.

32. Dameshek, W., and Gunz, F.: Leukemia. Grune and Stratton, N.Y., 1964.

33. Pickering, G.: Degenerative diseases: Past, present and future. In Re- flections on Research and the Future of Medicine, (Ed. Lyght, C.E.), McGraw-Hill, N.Y., 1967, p.83.

34. Foote, T.: Books: The taste of hemlock. Time , June 12, 1972, p.62.

35. Haldane, J.B.S.: Cancer's a Funny Thing. New Statesman , Feb 21,1964.

36. Behaviour: Frued and death. Time , July 17, 1972 p.29.

37. Huxley, Laura A.: This Timeless Moment. A personal view of Aldous Huxley. Chatto & Windus, London, 1969.

38. Leukemia Abstracts . Sponsored by: Lenore Schwartz Leukemia Re- search Foundation. Prepared by: Research Information Service. The John Cerar Library, Chicago.

39. Gunther,J.: Death Be Not Proud. A Memoir . Harper & Row, N.Y., 1965.

40. Bodley Scott, R.: Cancer chemotherapy - The first twenty-five years. Brit.Med.Jour., 4:259, 1970.

41. Lajtha, L.G.: The nature of cancer. In, What we Know about Cancer .(Ed. Harris, R.J.), George Allen & Unwin, London, 1970, p.34.

42. Editorial: 'Early; Diagnosis of cancer. N. Eng. Jour. Med. , 275:673, 1966.

43. Cheatle, G.L.: Important early symptoms in diseases of breast. Brit. Med. Jour ., 2:47, 1927.

44. Greenberg, D.S.: 'Progress' in cancer research - Don't say it isn't so. N.Eng. Jour.Med., 292:707, 1975.

45. Whiteside, M.G., Cauchi, M.V., and Paton, C.M.: Immunotherapy with chemotherapy in the maintenance of remission in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Med. Jour. Aust. , 2:10, 1976.

46. Mathe,G.: Approaches to the immunological treatment of cancer in man. Brit. Med. Jour ., 4:7,1969.

47. Wilcox, W.S.: The last surviving cancer cell: The chances of killing it Cancer Chemother . Rep., 50:541, 1966.

48. Medicine: What causes cancer? Newsweek , January 26, 1976, p.40.

49. Economy & Business: Reappraising saccharin - and the FDA. Time, April 25, 1977, p.43.

50. Kaplan, H.S.: Discussion on cocarcinogenic substances by Salaman, M.H. In, Ciba Foundation Symposium on Carcinogenesis: Mechanisms of Action (Ed. Wolstenholme, G.E.W., and O.'Connor, M.), Churchill, London, 1959, p.82.

51. Boyd, W.: A Textbook of Pathology. Structure and Function in Disease Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1970.

52. Coppleson, M., and Reid, B.: Preclinical Carcinoma of the Cervix Uteri. Pergamon Press, Oxford, London, 1967.

53. Kessler, I.I.: Husband as agent of cervical cancer. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. August 19,1977, p.84.

54. Fuller, B.A.G.: A History of Philosophy . Oxford & IBH Publ. Co., Calcutta, 1955, part II, p.152.

55. Kark, W.: A symposis of Cancer. John Wright, Bristol, 1966, p.101.

56. Royal College of Physicians of London: Report on smoking in relation to cancer of the lung and other diseases. Pitman, London, 1962.

57. Russell, B.: On the notion of cause. In, Mysticism and Logic . W. Norton & Co., N.Y. 1929, p.171.

58. Knebel, F.: Quoted in, The International Thesaurus of Quotations.Compiled by Tripp, R.T., Penguin Books, Middlesex, 1976, 976.8.

59. Koestler,A.: The perversity of physics.In, The Roots of Coincidence . Vin- tage Books, N.Y., 1973, p.50.

60. Webb, H.E. and Smith, C.E.G.: Viruses in the treatment of cancer. Lancet , 1:1206, 1970.

61. Prehn, R.T.: Immune reaction as a stimulator of tumour growth. Science , 176:170, 1972.

62. Medicine: Mammogram muddle. Time , August 2,1976, p.45.

63. Fialkow, P.J.: The origin and development of human tumours studied with cell markers. N.Eng. Jour. Med. , 291:26, 1974.

64. Jelliffe, A.M.: Book review: The Prevention of Cancer. Proc. Roy.Soc. Med. , 61:1072,1968.

65. Cushing, H.: Quoted in, 124, p.451.

66. Leading Article: The curability of cancer. Lancet , 1:715,1954.

67. Park, W.W., and Lees, J.C.: The absolute curability of cancer of the breast. Surg. Gynec.Obstet. , 93:129, 1951.

68. Bloodgood, J.C.: The diagnosis of early breast tumours. Jour.Amer. Med. Ass. , 81:875, 1923.

69. McKinnon, N.E.: Control of cancer mortality. Lancet , 1:251, 1954.

70. Bunker, J.P., Donahue, V.L., Cole, P., and Notman, M.T.: Elective hysterectomy: Pro and con. N.Eng. Jour. Med. , 295:264,1976.

71. Smithers, D.W.: On the Nature of Neoplasia in Man . Livingstone Edinburgh, London, 1964.

72. Hosokawa, T., Ito., H., Sekina, T., Komuro, N., Tanaka, T., Sekino, S., Miyashita, A., Miura, S., and Ozeki, A.: Studies on the histogenesis of induced chorioepithelioma in rats. Jikeikai Med. Jour. , 23:85, 1976.

73. Walker, A.E.: Intracranial tumours, In Cecil-Loeb Textbook of Medicine , (Ed. Beeson, P.B., and McDermott, W.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, London, 1966,p.1675.

74. Editorial: Carcinoma of the prostate. Lancet , 1:1259, 1958.

75. Franks, L.M.: The natural history of prostatic cancer. Lancet , 2:1037, 1956.

76. Schiller, W., Daro, A.F., Gollin, H.A., Primiano, N.P.: Small pre- ulcerative invasive carcinoma of the cervix: The spray carcinoma. Amer. Jour. Obstet. & Gynec ., 65:1088, 1953.

77. Christopherson, W.M., and Parker, J.E.: Dysplasia, Carcinoam in situ, and Microinvasive Carcinoma of the Cervix Uteri . (Ed. Gray, L.), C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1964.

78. Siegler, E.E.: Microdiagnosis of carcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. A comparative study of pathologists' diagnoses, Cancer, 9:463, 1956.

79. Way, S.: Methods of discovering carcinoma in situ. Reports of Societies, Jour.Obstet. & Gynec. Brit. Emp ., 67:150,1960.

80. Wildavsky, A.: Doing better and feeling worse: The political pathology of health policy . In, Doing Better and Feeling Worse: Health in the United States. (Ed. Knowles, J.H.), W.W. Norton & Co., N.Y., 1977, p.105.

81. Fischer, M.H.: Quoted in 124, p.97.

82. Macdonald, I.: The breast. In, Management of the Patient with Cancer . (Ed. Nealon, T.F.) W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, London, 1965, p.435.

83. Kiricuta, I., and Bucur, M.: Prognostic value of malignant evolutive onset in breast cancer. In, Oncology 1970, Abstracts. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1970, p.732, Abstract 1199.

84. Hamblin, T.: Personal view. Brit. Med. Jour. , 3:407, 1974.

85. Billroth, T.: Quoted by Rosemond, G.P., in Newer concepts in the management of patients with breast cancer. Cancer , 28:1372, 1971.

86. Veronesi, U.: Noncurative surgery. In, Cancer Medicine , (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III, E.), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.530.

87. Wilson, C.: The Outsider . Pan Books, London, 1971.

88. Brooke, B.N.: Understanding Cancer , Heinemann, London, 1971, p.105.

89. Watts, A.: Wealth versus money. In, Project Survival, Playboy Press, Chicago, Illinois, 1971, p.165.

90. Stephens, F.O.: 'Crab' care and cancer chemotherapy, Med. Jour. Aust. , 2:41, 1976.

91. Veronesi, U.: Principles of cancer surgery. In, Cancer Medicine (Ed. Holland, J.F. and Frei III, E.), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974. p.521.

92. Weil, R.: Chemotherapy and tumours. Jour.Amer. Med.Ass ., 64:1283, 1915.

93. Issels, J.: Quoted by Newton-Fenbow, 238, p.127.

94. Lewin,I.: Neoplasia. In, Internal Medicine Based on Mechanisms of Dis- ease. (Ed. Talso, P.J., and Remenchik, A.P.), C.V. Mosby Co., Saint Louis, 1968, p.140.

95. Sutherland, R.: Cancer, The Significance of Delay. Butterworths, London, 1960.

96. Homburger, F.: The Biologic Basis of Cancer Management . Hoeber- Harper, N.Y., 1957.

97. Lewison, E.F., Montague, A.C.W., and Kuller, L.: Breast cancer treated at the John Hopkins Hospital, 1951-1956. Cancer, 19:1359, 1966.

98. Henderson, E.S.: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In, Cancer Medicine. (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III, E.), Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia 1974,

99. Metchnikoff, E.: Quoted by Harrison, R.J. and Montagna,W., in Man . Appleton-Century-Crofts, N.Y., 1969, p.337.

100. Karnofsky, D.A.: Experimental cancer chemotherapy. In, Physiopathology of Cancer . (Ed. Homburger, F.), Hoeber -Harper, 1959,p.783.

101. Chabner, B.A.: Second neoplasm - a complication of cancer chemo- therapy. N.Eng. Jour. Med. , 297:213, 1977.

102. Reimer, R.R., Hoover, R., Fraumeni, J.F., Jr. and Young, R.C.: Acute leukemia after alkylating-agent therapy of ovarian cancer. N.Eng. Jour. Med., 297:177, 1977.

103. Cancer problems 160 years ago. Institution for investigating the nature of cancer. Int. Jour. Cancer , 2:281, 1967. This article originally appeared in the Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Jour. , 2:382, 1806.

104. Ho, J.H.C.: Head and neck tumours. The natural history and treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In, Oncology. IV . (Ed. Clark, R.L., Cumbley R.W. McCay, J.E., and Copeland, M.M.), Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1970, p.1.

105. Green R.A., and Dixon, H.: Expectancy for life in chronic lymphatic leu- kemia, Blood , 25:23, 1965.

106. Monti, A.: Diseases of the blood-forming organs. In, Internal Medicine Based on Mechanisms of Disease. (Ed. Talso, P.J., and Remenchik, A.P.), C.V. Mosby Co., Saint Louis 1968, p.644.

107. Field, J.B., Jr.: Quoted by Green, M.E. in, When to treat leukemia. N. Eng. Jour. Meds. , 281,1018, 1969.

108. Stevens, A.R.: Lymphatic leukemia for perhaps 28 years. N.Eng. Jour. Med. , 281:448, 1969.

109. Durrant, K.R., Berry, R.J., Ellis, F., Ridehalgh, F.R., Black, J.M., and Hamilton, W.S.: Comparison of treatment policies in inoperable bron- chial carcinoma. Lancet , 1:715,1971.

110. Swan, K.G.: Surgeons and operations. N. Eng. Jour. Med ., 282:1105, 1970.

111. Wenkart, A., and Robertson, B.: The natural course of gallstone disease. Eleven years; review of 781 non-operated cases. Gastroenter- ology, 50:376, 1966.

112. Bloom, H.J.G.: Natural history of untreated breast cancer. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. , 114: 747, 1964.

113. Zumoff, B., and Hellman, L.: The possibility of predicting the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy in the prolongation of survival. Lancet , 1:878, 1967.

114. Berry, R.E.L.: The surgical and non-surgical treatment of gastric ulcer. Arch. Surg ., 79:326, 1959.

115. Moore, F.D.: The effect of definitive surgery on duodenal ulcer disease: a comparative study of surgical and non-surgical management. Ann. Surg., 132:652, 1950.

116. Wilson, J.K.: The natural history of mitral stenosis. Canad. Med. Ass. Jour. , 71:323, 1954.

117. Eisenberg, H.: Trends in survival of digestive system cancer patients in Connecticut, 1935 to 1962. Gastroenterology, 53:528,1967.

118. Editorial: Oral cancer: A stubborn problem. Lancet , 1:299, 1972.

119. Ratcliff, J.D.: I am Jane's breast. Reader's Digest (India), September 1972, p.147.

120. Wilkie, D.P.D.: In, Great Teachers of Surgery in the Past . John Wright, Bristol, 1969, p.144.

121. Medicine: A right to die? Newsweek , November 3, 1975, p.42.

122. Robbins, L.L.: Prognosis, Arch. Int.Med. , 107:801, 1961.

123. Morton, L.T.: A Medical Bibliography. (Ed. Morton, L.T.), Andre Deutsch, London, 1970.

124. Familiar Medical Quotations. (Ed. Strauss, M.B.), Little Brown & Co., Boston, 1968.

125. Anonymous: Quoted in 124, p.461.

126. Black, M.M., Opler, S.R., and Speer, F.D.: Structural representations of tumour-host relationships in gastric carcinoma. Surg. Gynec. Obstet. , 102:599, 1956.

127. Mulligan, R.M.: Introduction to the pathology of cancer. In, Management of the Patient with Cancer. (Ed. Nealon, T.F.), W.B. Saunders, Philadel- phia, 1965, p.11.

128. Boyd, W.: Boyd's Pathology for the Surgeon. (Ed. Anderson, W.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1967.

129. Nathanson, I.T. and Welch, C.E.: Life expectancy and incidence of ma- lignant disease: I.Carcinoma of breast. Amer. Jour. Cancer, 28:40, 1936.

130. Hyman, H.T.: Quoted in, 124, p.461.

131. Krall, L.P.: Clinical evaluation of prognosis. In, Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus . (Ed. Marble, A., While, P., Bradley, R.F., and Krall L.P.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1971, p.211.

132. Friedberg, C.K.: Angina Pectoris. In, Cecil-Loeb Textbook of Medicine . (Ed. Beeson, P.B. and McDermott, W.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, London, 1966, p.682.

133. Perera, G.A.: Primary (essential) hypertension. In, Cecil-Loeb Textbook of Medicine (Ed. Beeson, P.B., and McDermott, W), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, London, 1966, p.682.

134. Goldberg, I.D., Levin, M.L., Gerhardt, P.R., Handy, V.H., and Cashman, R.E.: The probability of developing cancer, Jour. Natl. Cancer Inst. , 17:155,1956.

135. Macdonald, I.: The natural history of mammary carcinoma. Amer. Jour. Surg. , 111:435, 1966.

136. Medicine: Who shall die? Newsweek , May 24, 1971, p.52.

137. Hewitt, H.B.: Review of Cancer and the Immune Response by Currie, G.A. Brit. Jour. Radiol. , 48:516, 1975.

138. Byers, V.S. and Levin, A.S.: Tumour immunology. In, Basic and Clinical Immunology. (Ed. Fudenberg, H.H. Stites, D.P., Caldwell, J.L., and Wells, J.V.), Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California, 1976, p.242.

139. Editorial Comment: R.W.: The Year Book of Cancer 1973. (Ed. Clark, R.L., and Cumley, R..W.), Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1973, p.346.

140. Macdonald, I., and Kotin, P.: Biologic predeterminism in gastric carcinoma as the limiting factor of carability. Surg. Gynec., Obstet. , 98:148,1954.

141. McKhann, C.F.: Book review: Immunotherapy of Cancer in Man: Scien- tific Basis and Current Status. N.Eng. Med., 290:1267, 1974.

142. Roitt, I.M.: Transplantation. In, Essential Immunology. Blackwell, Oxford, 1974, p.181.

143. Nutting, M.G.: Ascites in malignant melanoma after oral BCG immuno- therapy. N.Eng. Jour. Med ., 295:395, 1976.

144. Saksela, E., and Meyer, B.: Clinical follow-up and the cell-mediated cy- totoxicity against HeLa cell in patients with invasive or preinvasive cervi- cal cancer. Med. Biol., 54:217, 1976.

145. Harris, J.E., and Sinkovics. J.G.: Tumours of man. In, the Immunology of Malignant Disease . C.V.Mosby, Saint Louis, 1970, p.203.

146. Oettgen, H.F., and Hellstrom, K.E.: Tumour immunology. In, Cancer Medicine. (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Freit, III, E.), Lea & Febiger, Philadel- phia, 1974. p.951.

147. McKhann, C.F., Hendrickson, C.G., Spitler, L.E., Gunnarsson, A., Banerjee, D., and Nelson, W.R.: Immunotherapy of melanoma with BCG: two fatalities following intralesional injection. Cancer, 35:514, 1975.

148. Bluming, A.G.: BCG: A note of caution. N.Eng. Jour. Med. , 289:860, 1973.

149. Wybran, J.: Experimental aspects of immunotherapy. In, Basic and Clinical Immunology . (Ed. Fudenberg, H.H., Stites, D.P., Caldwell, J.L. and Wells, J.V.), Lange Medical Publications, Los Altos, California, 1976, p.606.

150. Peter, L.J., and Hull, R.: The Peter Principle , Pan Books Lt., London, 1971.

151. Kothari, M.L., and Mehta, Lopa A.: The nature of immunity, I & II. Jour. Postgrand. Med. , 22:50, 112, 1976.

152. Lerner, A.J.: My Fair Lady. Adapted from Pygmalion by Shaw, G.B. Penguin Books, Middlesex, 1965.

153. Solzhenitsyn, A.: The First Circle. Allied Publishers Pvt.Ltd., Bombay, 1970, p.88.

154. a. Weinberg, A.M.: Science and trans-science. Minerva, 10:209-222, 1972. b. Leader: Trans-science. Med. Jour.Aust. 2:923, 1975.

155. Homburger, F.: Clinical investigation in cancer research. In, The Physio- pathology of Cancer. (Ed. Homburger, F.), Hoeber-Harper, N.Y., 1959, p.890.

156. Hoch-Ligeti, C.: Laboratory Aids in Diagnosis of Cancer . C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1969.

157. Capra, F.: The Tao of Physics . N.Y., 1977.

158. Ananthachar, V.S.: Do we know what mass it? Science Reporter, 6:287, 1969.

159. Dawkins, R.: The Selfish Gene, Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 1976, p.30.

160. Ardrey, R.: The Social Contract , Collins, London, 1970, p.5.

161. Science: DNA research: Not so dangerous after all? Time, August 15, 1977. p.44.

162. Weaver, R.F.: The cancer puzzle. National Geographic , 150:396, 1976.

163. Tainter, M.C.: Medicine's golden age: The triumph of the experimental method. Tran. N.Y. Acad. Sci. , 18:206, 1956.

164. Heiger, I.: Theories of carcinogenesis. In, Ciba Foundation Symposium on Carcinogenesis: Mechanisms of Action. (Ed. Wolstenholme, G.E.W., and O'Connor, M.), Churchill, London, 1959, p.3.

165. Smithers, D.W.: A Clinical Prospect of the Cancer Problem. Living stone, Edinburgh, London, 1960.

166. Page, I.H.: Cancer - conquest or turmoil? Modern Medicine , 39:73, 1971.

167. Cancer Medicine, Edited by Holland., J.F., and Frei, III, E. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974.

168. Mihich, E.: Pharmacologic principles and the basis for selectivity of drug action. In, Cancer Medicine . (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III, E.) Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.650.

169. Indian Cancer Society: Second All India Cancer Convention. The Indian Express , Bombay, February 17, 1978.

170. McGrady, P.: Quoted by, Weaver, R.F., in 162.

171. Rutstein, D.D.: The paradox of modern medicine. In, The Coming Revolution in Medicine . Vakils, Feffer and Simons Pvt.Ltd., Bombay, 1967, p.9.

172. Kurtzman, J., and Gordon, P.: No More Dying: The Conquest of Aging and the Extension of Human Life . Dell Publ. Co., N.Y., 1977.

173. Culliton, B.J.: Science, society and the press. N. Eng. Jour. Med., 296:1450,1977.

174. Cover Story: Towards cancer control. Time , March 19, 1973, p.30.

175. Greenberg, D.S.: The press and health care. N. Eng.Jour. Med. , 297:231, 1977.

176. Eisenberg, L.: The search for care. In, Doing Better and Feeling Worse: Health in the United States. (Ed. Knowles, J.H.). W.W. Norton, N.Y., 1977, p.235.

177. Taylor, D.M.: Book review: The Nature of Cancer. Brit. Jour. Radiol., 48:420, 1975.

178. Segi, M., and Kurihara, M.: Cancer mortality for selected cancer siters in 24 countries , NO.4 (1962-1963), Sendai (Japan) Tohoko University School of Medicine, Dept. of Public Health, Japan, 1966.

179. Dunham, L.J., and Bailer, J.C.: World maps on cancer mortality rates and frequency ratios. Jour. Natl. Cancer Inst., 41:155, 1968.

180. Khanolkar, V.R.: Quoted by Glesmer in 22, p.122.

181. Moore D.H., Sarkar, N.H. Kramarsky, B., Lasfargues, E.Y., and Charney, J.: Some aspects for the search for a human mammary tumour virus. Cancer , 28:1415, 1971.

182. Higginson, J.: Foreword. In, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents . Volume III-1976. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, 1976, p.vii.

183. Portmann, A.: Time in the life of the organism. In, Man and Time , Pantheon Books, N.Y., 1957, p.308.

184. Everson, T.C., and Cole, W.H.: Spontaneous Regression of Cancer . W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1966.

185. Comments: Spontaneous regression of primary cutaneous melanoma. Med. Jour. Aust. , 2:759, 1975.

186. Pack, G.T.: St. Peregrine, O.S.M. the patron saint of cancer patients, Ca, 17:183, 1967.

187. Curtis, H.J.: Biological mechanisms of delayed radiation damage in mammals. In, Current Topics in Radiation Research . (Ed. Ebert, M., and Howard, A.), North-Holland Publ. Co., Amsterdam, 1967, p.139.

188. Shimkin, M.B.: Pulmonary tumours in experimental animals. Adv. Cancer Research , 3:223, 1955.

189. Bizzozero, O.J. Johnson, K.G., and Cicocco, A.: Radiation-related leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-1964, N.Eng. Jour. Med., 274:1095, 1966.

190. Kothari, M.L., and Mehta Lopa A.: Modus operandi of carcinogens: Mere temporal advancement. Jour. Postgrad. Med., 15:101, 1969.

191. Stewart, F.M.: The Methuselah Enzyme. Bantam Books, N.Y., 1972.

192. Selye, H.: The future for aging research. In, Perspectives in Experimen- tal Gerontology. (Ed. Shock, N.W.), C.C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, 1966, p.375.

193. Strehler, B.L.: Time, Cells and Aging. Academic Press, N.Y., London, 1968.

194. Nelson, W.E.: Diabetes Mellitus. In, Textbook of Pediatrics. (Ed. Nelson, W.E.), W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1969, p.1155.

195. Maugh II, T.H. and Marx, J.L.: Seeds of Destruction. The Science Report on Cancer Research . Plenum Press, N.Y., 1975.

196. Waterhouse, J.A.H.: Cancer Handbook of Epidemiology and Prognosis.Churchill, Livingston, London, 1974.

197. Loewy, A.G. and Siekevitz, P.: Cell Structure and Function. Amerind Publ.Co., New Delhi, 1974, p.7.

198. Nilsson, L., and Lindberg., J.: Behold Man , Harrap, London, 1973, p.143.

199. Kothari, M.L., and Mehta, Lopa A.: Cancerology - Science or Non- Science. Jour. of Postgrad. Med. , 24:68, 1978.

200. Carrel, A.: Man, the Unknown. Macffaden Publications, N.Y., 1961, p.162.

201. Illich, I.: Limits to Medicine, Medical Nemesis: The expropriation of Health. Marrion Boyars Publishers Ltd., 1976.

202. Malleson, A.: Need Your Doctor Be So Useless ? George Allen & Unwin, London, 1973.

203. Platt, R., Private and Controversial, Cassell. London, 1972.

204. Cullinton, B.J.: Mammography controversy: NIH's entree into evaluating technology. How important is early detection? Science, 198:171, 1977.

205. Rang, M.: The Ulysses syndrome. Canad. Med. Ass. Jour. , 106:122, 1972.

206. Huxley, A.: The Perennial Philosophy . Fontana Books, Collins, 1966, p.299.

207. Barnard, C.: Heart Attack. You don't Have to Die . W.H. Allen, London N.Y., 1972, p.78.

208. Harrison, T.R.: In retrospect: some pride and more folly. Am. Jour. Med. Sci ., 269:11, 1975.

209. Krauss, K.: Quoted in, 124, p.97.

210. Proust, M.: Quoted in, 124, p.472.

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225. Leading Article: How relevant is present cancer research? Brit. Med. Jour. , 3:45, 1969.

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267. Leading Article: The price of survival in childhood leukemia. Brit. Med. Jour ., 1:321, 1978.

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294. Godwin-Austen, R.B.: Parkinson's Disease - A booklet for patients and their families. Parkinson's Disease Society U.K., 1977, p.1.

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301. Leading Article: Breast lumps in adolescent girls. Lancet , 1:260,1978.

302. Knox, E.G.: Multiphasic screening. Lancet , 2:1434, 1974.

303. Editorial: Multiphasic screenin general practice. Lancet , 1:29, 1978.

304. Bate, J.G.: Cervical cytology. In, Contemporary Obstetrics and Gynaecology. (Ed. Chamberlain, G.V.P.), Northwood Publ., London, 1977, p.341.

305. Knaus, W.: Modern hospital becomes a warehouse for machines. Re- printed from Washington Post in Indian Express, August 4, 1978.

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310. Juret, P., Delozier, T., Mandard, A.M., Couette, ZJ.E., Leplat, G., and Vernhes, J.C.: Sex of first child as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Lancet, 1:415, 1978.

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312. Salmon, S.E., Hamburger, A.W., Soehnlen, B., Durie, B.G.M. Alberts, D.S., and Moon, T.E.: Quantitation of differential sensitivity of human- tumour stem cells to anticancer drugs. N. Eng. Jour. Med. , 298:1321,1978.

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314. Stock, J.A.: The chemotherapy of cancer. In, The Biology of Cancer. (Ed. Ambrose, E.J., and Roe, F.J.C.), D. Van Nostrand Comp., London, 1966, p.176.

315. Clarkson, B.D.: Current concepts of leukemia and results of recent treat- ment programs. Transplantation Proceedings , 10:157, 1978.

316. Hersh, E.M.: Modification of host defense mechanisms. In, Cancer Medi- cine . (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III, E.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.681.

317. Editorial: Human tumours in mice and rats. Lancet , 1:138, 1978.

318. Zubrod, C.G.: Introduction. In, Cancer Medicine . (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III, E.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.601.

319. Bodey, G.P.: Infections in patients with cancer. In, Cancer Medicine . (Ed. Holland, J.F., and Frei, III. E.), Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 1974, p.1135.

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321. Bier, A.: Quoted in Familiar Medical Quotations . (Ed. Strauss, M.B.), Little Brown & Co., Boston, 1968, p.476.

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326. Dudley, H.A.F.: If I had carcinoma of the middle third of the rectum. Brit. Med. Jour. , 1:1035, 1978.

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332. Editorial: Hospice care. Lancet , 1:1193, 1978.

333. Medicine: A better way of dying. Time, June 5, 1978, p.55.

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Terms have been defined with reference to medicine in general and cancer in particular. An attempt has been made to go beyond the mere dictionary meaning so as to provide a wider perspective. Related words are mentioned in parenthesis at the end of the explanation.

Adenocarcinoma Cancer arising in a gland.
Allogenic Originating in a genetically different individual, but
from the same species.
Analgesic Pain-relieving drug, such as aspirin.

Anoci-Association An association based on the Hippocratic motto

primum non nocere , meaning that the least that a
therapy should do to a patient, is to do no harm.
Antigen A substance, that on introduction into the body,
excites a highly specific response in the form of
antibody (a protein) and/or cells (lymphocytes). An
antigen's specific reactivity with antibody/cells
allows laboratory detection of its presence in blood
or tissue. Some cancers carry on their cells and/or
secrete into the blood antigens, of which the
carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is an example.
CEA, found most commonly with cancer of the
gastrointestinal tract, is detected in the laboratory
by demonstrating its reactivity with a specific
antibody. CEA is a normal constitutent of human
plasma, and what tests detect is its elevated level in
some cancers.
Aphthous ulcer Small, painful ulcer/s accompanying inflammation of
the mouth.
Arteriosclerosis Thickening and hardening of arteries, a common
accompaniment of aging.
Autochthonous Arising from an individual's own tissues; not
Benign Not threatening health or life; opposite of malignant;


non- cancerous. A benign tumour/lump has
microscopic features resembling a normal tissue.
Bronchial cancer A bronchus is a subdivision of the air-passages
beyond the trachea (windpipe). Cancer of the lung
usually starts in a large bronchus, and thus is often
referred to as bronchial cancer or bronchial
Burkitt's tumour A lymphoma with characteristic microscopic picture,
commoner at younger age. Also called Burkitt's
Cancerability It is the faculty of a normal cell to cancerate and thus
turn into a cancer cell.
Cancerogen A substance supposedly producing cancer. Also
called, carcinogen. A substance that assists a
cancerogen is called cocancerogen , and one that
opposes its action is called anticancerogen. Similarly,
cocarcinogen and anticarcinogen.
Cancerogenesis The production of cancer. Also called carcinogen-
Cancerologist The cancer specialist. Also called oncologist . The
speciality is called cancerology or oncology .
Cancerotrophic An agent promoting the growth of cancer.
Cancerrealism An approach to cancer based on cancerologic,
cytologic and biologic facts. Such facts constitute
cancerrealities .
Celluloma A lump or a mass made up of cells. - oma as a suffix
indicates swelling; hence, lipoma, fibroma,
astrocytoma, melanoma, etc.
Chemotherapy Thearpy by drugs.
Cholelithiasis Formation of stones in the biliary tract. Gall stones.
Choriocarcinoma, A cancer arising from the chorionic covering of a
gestational foetus, and growing in the uterus of the mother.
Chronic Any illness characterized by long duration, or frequent
recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly
progressing severity; opposite of acute.
Chronic lymphocytic Often abbreviated as CLL. A type of slowly growing
leukemia leukemia characterized by the excessive proliferation
of lymphocytes all over. A disease mainly of the
middle and old age.
Chronic myeloid Often abbreviated as CML. A type of slowly
leukemia progressing leukemia, characterized by the
excessive proliferation of granular white blood cells,
starting in the bone marrow and then appearing in


the blood and elsewhere. A disease mainly of the
middle and old age.
Cirrhosis A chronic disease characterized by progressive
destruction and hardening of the liver.
Collagen The fibrous protein that provides the scaffold for the
animal body, being one of the principal skeletal
substance binding cells and tissues together.
Colposcopy Examination of the vagina and cervix with an
instrument called colposcope that provides
illumination and magnification.

Cytodifferentiation The process whereby a cell changes its character to

turn into another type of cell. Also called differentia-
Cytokinetic Related to the process of cell division and prolifera-
tion the science of which is called cytokinetics.
Cytologist One specializing in the study of cells. (Cytology).
Cytotoxic Toxic or lethal to cells. X-rays and 'anticancer' drugs
are cytotoxic agents, being indiscriminately toxic to
both normal and cancerous cells.
Desenesce Rejuvenate.
Diabetes mellitus What is commonly known as diabetes is medically
termed as diabetes mellitus (sweet diabetes)
because of the patient passing sugar in the urine.
Such diabetes is to be distinguished from diabetes
insipidus, wherein the patient passes large qualities
of 'insipid' urine.
Disease The term is derived from old French desaise ( des -
absence of, and aise - ease), and really means dis-
ease or lack of ease. The etymologic emphasis has
been lost in medical science so that the word disease
is freely used even though the so-called disease - a
cancerous mass in the prostate or the breast - in no
way dis-eases the owner.
Dysplasia Literally, abnormality of a tissue. In current fashion,
it implies cellular abnormalities of the lining epithelium
of the cervix of the uterus, that 'a pathologist
recognizes as abnormal, yet not to a degree he is
willing to call cancer.'
E.coli Short form for Escherichia coli, a bacterium normally
found in billions in the human and animal intestine.
Ectopic Out of the normal place. A hormone is normally
secreted by its special gland. When it is also secreted
elsewhere by another tissue, it is called ectopic
EKGitis A term to describe the inordinate faith of the doctor
or the patient in the diagnostic and prognostic
usefulness of the electrocardiogram (ECG),
sometimes abbreviated as EKG.
Follow-up The medical practice of periodically reassessing and
recording the condition of a patient following
diagnosis and/or treatment.
Gaussian distribution A theoretical frequency distribution that is bell
shaped, symmetrical and of infinite extent. Also
called normal distribution. Many a biologic feature,
related to health or disease, exhibits gaussian
Gerontology Science of aging, and of the problems of the aged.
Grading A mode of describing the severity of a cancer by
grading it as Grade 1 through 4. The severity of a
cancer is assumed to be directly proportional to the
departure of its cells from normality when seen
through a microscope. A cancer belongs to Grade 1
when most of its cells are near-normal in appearance
and arrangement, and to Grade 4 when most cells
look abnormal in appearance and arrangement.
Histological Related to the study of tissue - normal or cancerous
- with a microscope. (Histology, Histologist).
Hodgkin's disease A form of lymphoma with special microscopic
Hysterectomy Surgical removal of the uterus.
Iatrogenic Produced by a doctor. Also called iatral .
Immunological Related to the science of immunology that studies
the nature of antigen/antibody reactions and cells
that possibly mediate the immunity (defence
mechanisms) of the body against a disease. (Tumour
immunity/immunology, Immunotherapy).
Intercurrent disease The occurrence of an unrelated disease in a cancer
Leukemia Cancer of the white blood cells.
Linear accelerator Specialized machine for X-ray treatment of cancer.
Such a machine, by the tremendous acceleration it
imparts to electrons, produces high energy, X-ray
beams, that allow a patient to be treated 'in one or


two minutes.'
Lumpolytic An agent that causes dissolution, albeit temporary,
of a cancerous lump.
Lymphoma Cancer arising in lymphoid tissues. Unlike in
leukemias, the involvement of the bone marrow by
the cancerous cells, and their presence in the blood
stream are uncommon.
Malignancy In cancerology, used as a synonym for cancer: hence,
malignant tumour or malignant lesion. In medicine
in general, malignant implies grave severity of a
disease: thus, malignant fever, malignant
hypertension, malignant malaria. A malignant
tumour shows microscopic features supposedly
characteristic of cancer. Opposite of benign.
Mammography Study of the breast by X-rays.
Melanoma A skin cancer arising from its pigmented cells; can
also arise from the eye, mucous membrane, and
other tissues.
Metastasis Spread or transfer of disease (cancer, infection) from
its site of origin to another site nor directly connected
with it. (Metastatic, Metastasize).
Multifactorial See Polygenic inheritance.
Mitral stenosis Narrowing of the mitral valve of the heart.
Nasopharyngeal Cancer of the nasopharynx, the region of the throat
carcinoma behind the cavity of the nose.
Nephritis Inflammation of the kidney.
Nephrosis Non-inflammatory, degenerative disorder of the
Neoplastic Development of cancer. Neoplasm, literally meaning
development new (ly formed) tissue connotes cancer, although
such process also occurs in inflammation, wound
healing, etc.
Ontolysis Dissolution of one's own self.
Palliative Any therapeutic measure that affords relief, but no
freedom from the disease. (Palliation, Palliatable).
Pernicious anaemia A form of anaemia which, before the discovery of its
therapy with vitamin B 12 was inexorably fatal.

Polygenic inheritance The occurrence of cancer in an individual is governed by many unidentifiable genes (hence called polygenic/multi-factorial inheritance) which in coordination with the genes of the entire herd,

determine whether or not cancer would occur. And
such genetic governance in an individual is
quantitative and not qualifative. All humans can
develop cancer; only some do, for in them the
quantitative gene effect is sufficient enough to carry
them beyond a certain genetic threshold.
Polygenic inheritance has been invoked to explain
the occurrence of a wide variety of diseases ranging
from congenital malformations like cleft plata to
common diseases like peptic ulcer, heart attack,
diabetes, or hypertension.
Primary In cancerology, it refers to the site where the cancer
first originates; hence, primary site, primary cancer,
primary growth, and so on. When a cancer, taking
off from the primary site, establishes itself at other
additional site/s physically discontinuous from the
primary, it is said to have formed secondary or
metastatic cancer. From the secondary site, the
whole process of metastasis can be repeated.
Probability Etymologically and simply, it means likelihood.
Epistemologically, it implies a state of knowledge that
is less than certainly but greater than ignorance.
Epidemiologically, it means certainty at the herd level
which, being numerically smaller than the number
forming the herd, must of necessity be a matter of
chance, likelihood or probability when expressed at
an individual level. Such measurement or quantitation
of uncertainty is called probability.
The epidemiologic concept of probability can be best
amplified by acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a form
of blood cancer. Globally, it occurs at the rate of 2 to
3 cases per 100,000 population per year with little
variation from country to country. Here, the certainty
is 2 to 3 cases per 100,0
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