EPIDEMIOLOGIC SURVEILLANCE AFTER NATURAL DISASTER

( By A Study Guide (Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) )

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Multiple Choice

Circle the correct answer:

1. Surveillance of communicable diseases following a disaster is complicated by:


a. persistence of many serious communicable diseases
b. lack of baseline data
c. lack of writing materials
d. all of the above
e. a and b

2. Appropriate assessment of rumors is possible through:


a. early epidemiologic involvement and prompt field investigation
b. education of concerned parties about appropriate ways to interpret and respond to rumors
c. weekly reports
d. a and c
e. a and b

3. An infectious disease agent can be brought into a disaster area by:


a. a relief worker
b. transport vehicle
c. supplies
d. all of the above
e. a and c

4. For visual appreciation of disease trends, it is most helpful to use:


a. maps
b. graphs
c. columns of numbers
d. figures
e. a and b

5. Efforts to provide feedback to the field from the central office may be frustrated by limitations of:


a. diagnostic resources
b. epidemiologic human resources
c. communications and transport
d. all of the above
e. b and c

6. Mass administration of antibiotics is not suitable because:


a. antibiotics are not effective against viral diseases (i.e. influenza)
b. no single antibiotic provides adequate coverage against all potential bacterial or rickettsial diseases
c. antibiotics have to be taken indefinitely to prevent infection for a susceptible organism
d. they can induce allergic reactions and toxic effects
e. all of the above

7. Diseases potentially introduced into areas affected by disaster relief workers are:


a. new strains of influenza
b. diseases borne by insect vectors
c. leukemia
d. all of the above
e. a and b

8. Emergency water supply operations should ensure:


a. amount of daily water consumption needed
b. water disinfection, protection, storage, and quality
c. protection of wells
d. all of the above
e. b and c

True/False

Indicate T or F:

____9. Following a disaster it is often best to discontinue routine public health services and use the people and money for emergency public health programs directed to specific problems.

____10. After a disaster, the surveillance of all possible diseases is usually essential.

____11. Standardized case definitions and/or symptom complexes need to be incorporated in predisaster training.

____12. Epidemics can usually be avoided after a disaster because people congregate for food, safety and medical attention and consequently can be organized to avoid risks.

____13. Factors which contribute to the risk of communicable disease after a manmade disaster are very different from those after a natural disaster.

____14. Regular telephone or mail surveys of a sample of physicians can yield a good appreciation of actual levels of diseases in the population.

____15. Systematic confirmation of all suspected cases of the diseases subject to international notification and/or those of selected emphasis in surveillance is a high priority during and after disasters.

____16. If children in an area affected by a disaster have not been vaccinated previously, an emergency immunization program should be developed.

____17. Relief administrators usually give high priority to environmental health measures that prevent communicable diseases.

____18. Following a disaster, most epidemics are detected because medical care improves.

____19. International relief organizations - which provide personnel and supplies following a disaster usually view epidemiologic surveillance and control as a national responsibility.

____20. Most developing countries have infection control problems in their hospitals.

____21. After a disaster it is necessary for relief authorities to set up a separate postdisaster surveillance/assessment system.

____22. The most prevalent diseases in populations stricken by disaster may be controlled by mass immunization.

____23. Certain areas, such as permanent encampments of displaced persons, may require indefinite special surveillance.

____24. Serious outbreaks of communicable disease very rarely occur after natural disasters unless people are placed in camps.

____25. Incoming surveillance notifications should be carefully filed so they can be tabulated at the end of the reporting period.

Answer Key














































1. b


14. T


2. e


15. T


3. d


16. F


4. e


17. F


5. d


18. F


6. e


19. F


7. e


20. T


8. d


21. F


9. F


22. F


10. F


23. T


11. T


24. T


12. F


25. F


13. F


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