( By Dr. Vithal Prabhu )

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Man and Woman

“Males would be better prepared to understand females, and females to males, if they realized that they are alike in their basic anatomy and physiology.” Alfred Kinsey The deveopment of the sex organs in the human embryo begins from the 5th week of pregnancy. The basic sex organs both in the male and in the female look the same. There is no differentiation till three months of pregnancy.

The basic organs are:

  1. Genital tubercle
  2. Genital folds
  3. Genital swellings.

Later the development begins as follows:
The genital tubercle develops into penis in the male and into clitoris in the female. The genital folds unite to form the underportion of the penis in the males; while they partly unite and partly remain separate to form labia minora in the females. The genital swellings become hollow to form scrotum and lodge the testes in the males. The genital swellings become elongated and flat to form the labia majora in the females. The counterparts of testes in males are ovaries in females which lie in the abdomen. The urethra gets enveloped by penis in the males, while it remains separate below the clitoris in the females.

The place of Cowper’s glands in the males is taken by Bartholin's glands in the females. The prostate gland in the male is homologous to urethral glands along the urethra in the females. A small pouch in the prostate called prostatic utricle in the male represents vagina of the female. Similar development takes place also inside the embryo.

In the abdomen of the embryo are two pairs of tubes: 1. Mesonephric ducts. 2. Paramesonephric ducts. In the males, mesonephric ducts remain separate and develop into vas deferens, seminal vesicles and prostate; the paramesonephric ducts remain dormant. In the females, the paramesonephric ducts develop. They partly remain separate to form Fallopian tubes and partly unite to form uterus and vagina. Mesonephric ducts remain dormant.


  1. In the male and the female, the basic structures of sex organs are same. The ultimate structures change for the purpose of reproductive function.

  2. Every male has 2% parts of the female and every female has 2% parts of the male.

  3. The sensation of glans penis is similar to that of clitoris; that of ventral surface of penis is similar to that of labia minora; and that of scrotum is similar to that of labia majora.

  4. The sensation of vagina in the female cannot be perceived by the male since he has no similar organ. However, if the male were to have a vaginal opening it would be in the midline on the scrotum.

  5. In male, four functions are attributed to a singal organ—penis: urination, ejaculation, receiving sexual stimuli and intercourse. In female, the ejaculation is absent. The remaining three functions are done by three separate organs: urethra for urination, clitoris for receiving sexual stimuli and vagina for intercourse.

  6. In male, the organ of procreation and of recreation is one and the same, i.e., penis. In female they are different. Organ for procreation is vagina and organ of recreation is clitoris.

  7. In male, the testes are outside the body so that their temperature would remain less than that of the body. Only at this temperature the testes can produce numerous sperms. In females, the ovaries are inside the body since only one ovum is to be produced per month.

  8. The male is dependant on the female for sexual pleasure, while the female is self dependant for sexual pleasure. (She can get quicker orgasm by self stimulation of clitoris than through intercourse.)

  9. The ultimate goal for the male is sex, while the ultimate goal for the female is love motherhood; sex being the means of achieving this goal.

  10. In reproduction, the male has limited responsibility of producing sperms and depositing them at the mouth of the uterus. The female has much more responsibility, i.e., receiving the sperms, producing the ovum, fertilizing it with a sperm, growing and delivering the baby and then nourishing it on breast milk.

  11. Therefore, the hormone in male, testosterone, is for sexual stimulation and for production of sperms. The hormones in female, estrogen, progesterone and prolactin, are for menarche, ovulation, menstruation, pregnancy, delivery and lactation.

  12. In reproduction, a minor responsibility is given to the male and a major responsibility to the female. The nature has designed their body and mind accordingly.

  13. The male and the female are not “opposite sexes” but “complementary sexes.” They are both equal but not similar. (like two sides of a coin.)

  14. Mother nature is not gender biased. The male and the female sexuality differ because they have different biological functions and are conditioned differently.

Males and females have to understand each other, so that they will be prepared to make adjustments when required.

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