In this section we will not go into leadership theories as this was dealt with in the chapter on leadership, (19820. Here we will build on the dieas expressed in that book. This section brings out the importance of values, levels of consciousness and needs as enlarging the concept of maturity and the urgency of a world vision to make a better world.
Leadership is not only management. Management is a technique, a science. A leader has to be a good manager, but he must also be able to initiate innovative and change-oriented behaviour in a group of people. This can be exercised by personal qualities and by control over the distribution of resources.
Leadership is theability to encourage, inspire and facilitate others to maximize their efforts in the pursuit of a vision and agreed upon goals. The leaderís principle rule is one of the motivation, helping tos et goals and then moving people to achieve them.
Only that leadership can be considered effective which is socially responsive to the dehumanizing situations maintained by the social, economic, and political strutures of society and strives to create with the people the conditions for integral human growth. The leader must be a life gives in that he structures hope. He must be sincerely and deeply committed to his programme. He must have the capacity toread and discern history, to be critically conscious of what the practical reality and pressures are, and to have insights onhow to cope with them.
Leadership can be developed mainly by developing the following kinds of Skills: Instrumental, Interpersonal, Imaginal, and Systems.
For efficiency and prodcutivity:
These are task oriented to get the job done.
They cover the very general skills needed within a culture, and the professional and technical skills required of the specialist. The emphasis is on cognitive and manual development. It includes the process of being bale to write, to read, and count, buildboats and bridges, and evelop skills in moral reasoning. The construction and use of tools is the key here. These skills blend intelligence and manual dexterity.
Leadership skill examples: skills in particular professional areas, such as law or administration.
Equip an individual to enter into satisfying human relationships. There is a noticeable correlation between a personís expansion of consciousness and a widening of his social relationships.
The skills of human relations and communications. The ability to affirm and confront others in an empathic, caring manner. It is the development of trust and intimacy with the skills of sharing and listening. To be in touch with oneís own feelings and appreciate them as valuable sources of information. The ability to objectify oneís own feelings so that cooperation rather than isolation is enhanced. Leadershipskill examples: Human relation skills, skills in value clarification and group dynamics, skills in facilitation and processing emotions, and conflict management skills.
For synergetic interaction among fantasy, theemotion,s and the reflective intellect. The development of fantasy and emotions as conscious faculties to be utilized in personal and group evaluation, criticism, judgement making and hopeful planning. It includes the development of creativity and intuition. This skill helps integrate the other three skills.
Fantasy uses psychic enrgy to convert data received from the external environment or oneís inner world, into images. This is more developed in some people than others. The emotions pass judgement on the images.
Imagainal skills include: the ability to fantasize and create new alternatives, to see the consequences of the alternatives, and to prioritize the more productive ones, the ability to criticise and evaluate situations and to read their potential and limitations, the ability to make sense out of icnreasing amounts of data, the capacity tolearn from direct experience.
Leadership skill examples: Formative evaluation process, personal consciousness tracking, wholistic management of vision, market and finances. The ability to read history and how it imposes on personal and institutional limits.
To synthesize complex data as the individual relates to his social world.
The emphasis on the individual as system, and as a part of systems. The body is a system we need to know how to handle. Administrative frameworks, a classroom, indeed society are all examples of systems that demand the individual have skills when he works with them. Leadership skill examples: Organization development skills, management objectives, goal and role setting skills, skills in evaluating, diagnosis and consciousness tracking, and ability torelax and control time.
These skills emerge in relationship to thelevels of leadership and the phases of consciousness, see Figure 7. In this figure we see that technical or instrumental skills are the primary concerns of leadership Levels 1 and 2. Levels 3 and 4 are characterized by the emergence of interpersonal skills. In Phase Three Consciousness the self assumes an ascendancy that puts personal creativity with its accompanying imagainal skills into prominence (Levels 4 and 5). Finally, if total life experience is integrated, a systems awareness breaks into consciouness at Level 5 enabling the initial development of systems skills.
|Emergence of skills||Levels of Leadership|
|New Imaginal Skills|
|Phase of Consciousness||One||Two||Three||Four|
Figure 7 - The emergence of skills in relationship to the levels of leadership and the phrases of consciousness.
"Systems skills depend upon the integration of instrumental and interpersonal skills developed during the first twophases of consciousness with the new imaginal skills that accompany the emergence of self at Phase Three. Although imagainalskills - wonder, discovery and self - delight - arise during infancy, imagination and creativity become owned as distinct, unique gifts during Phase Three. Since fantasy and feeling are interrelated, the Phase Three person expeirences the freedom to be unintimidated by sexual fantasy, to allow his anger to rise as a positive force, to feelthat his ideas are as important as anyone elseís. He or she experiences the freedom to go public with visions and dreams. Systems skills arise only after the leaders has grown past Level 4, after he has taken ownership of his own personal authority, after his imagaination begins to free his interpersonal capacity, and his feeling life begins to enrich his fantasy. As illustrated in Figure 8.
Figure 8 - The skill Integration which occurs at Level 5 and is basic tothe emergence of systems skills:
Phase Two Phase Three Phase Four
The need to Do
The Need to BE The Need to Care
The Need to Belong Imaginal Skills Systems Skills
CONSCIOUSNESS AND VALUE DEVELOPMENT
Human beings today look at their world andwonder what it is all about. They look at themselves and then at theworld and search for meaning. Many do not find it and fall into a state of helplessness and hopelessness. In Holistic Health Workbook, Chapter 2, on themeaning of life, we give several exercises to get to your purpose and meaning of life.
Hallís Theory of consciousness and value development lucidly shows how can help each other find meaning and purpose in life by acquiring quite specific skills of each phase of consciousness and practicing the values particular toe ach phase. The behaviour characteristic of each phase is determined by (2) how the individual perceives the self functioning within that world; and (3) what human needs the self seeks to satisfy. According to his theory, the self will function in response to the perceived pressures needs that impel from within. When the perceived environmental expectations change, and when theinner felt needs of the individual change, then the behaviour of the individual changes. Implicit in an individualís behaviour are the values that motivate andgive priority to his activities, and the skills associated with the experience of his successful performance. The next section shows how we develop a view of our world through the four phases of consciousness.
DEVELOPMENT OF A WORLD VIEW:
Consciousness or maturity levels of leadership can be seen by the world view of the person. We can see four phases in the development of this consciousness. The behaviour characteristic of a phase of consciousness is determ8ined by three factors : (1) how the world is perceived by the individual, (2) how the individual perceives the self functioning within that world, and (3) what human needs the self seeks to satisfy. Each phase can be easily described and readily understood by an ordinary observer of human behaviour.
THE FOUR PHASES OF CONSCIOUSNESS
"Phase One Consciousness": The world is perceived as a mystery oveer which the individual has no control. It is a hostile world in which theself merely exists, but the self exists at the center of its world. The self struggles to survive in this alien, capricious environment. For the child, it is a new world, a mystery to which theself responds with wonder and awe. During the initial phase of consciousness, the individual seeks to satisfy physical human needs; the need for food, for warmth; the need for shelter and for pleasure. Self-preservation and security motivate the individual to acquire the skills that will guarantee his safety and insure his survival.
Leadership behaves and makes ecisions on thebasis of physical needs of the people, being preoccupied with the values of self-preservation. The leader must have great skill to be able to move people to work for community goals which satisfy their basic needs, while at the same time freeing them from their extreme insecurity".
The Phase I leader can be a benevolent dictator, a caring father/mother, a fairy godmother.
"Phase Two Consciousness": In this phase the world is no longer perceived as hostile and alien, but rather it is a peopled world to which the self must belong and in which the self must succeed. Rather than a mystery over which the self has no control, thesocial world is a problem with which the individual can cope. The individual learns to do things that merit the approval of persons who are significant, thereby guaranteeing acceptance into thegroup an denhancing oneís own sense of competence and confidence. By conforming to the norms of significant persons and groups and by becoming usefully productive, the self satisfies its social needs for acceptance, affirmation, approval, and achievement. By experiencing belonging and success, the self comes to realize a sense of self-worth". These two phases are highly visible in society.
Having helped the group meet their Phase I basic needs, the leader in the ssecond phase is concerned with the social needs of followers, and keeping peace. The method to do this would increase the sense of competence and satatus of the people while improving the values of achievement, prestige and success to the community. Some concrete ways of doing this would be tod evelop training institutes, specific purpose clubs, develop structures whichs pecify expectationsf and rewards. Examples of Phase II leaders are dodctors, teachers, priests, and otehrs who help develop talents for social service while keeping the identity and self-worth needs of the people in focus.
Phase Three Consciousness: In the course of human development the individual begins to move into a phase three consciousnesxs when he no longer needs the affirmation of others to realize his self-worth and he no long finds meaning in merely living up to the expectations of others. He views the world as a project in which he must aprticipate. His sense of self-worth has become internalizced; internal, personal expectations for himself replace external ones; the self begins to take charge, directing oneís life, owning oneís ideas. A personal sense of power and authority replaces instiuttional control of behaviour.
Consequently creativity and imagaination are prized and a new found sense of honesty makes conformity hypocritical. The self acts onthe created world with conscience and independence. The transition into Phase Three consciousness with probably not occur before early adulthood; it could occur any time during adulthood, or it may never occur at all.".
World View, Values and Behaviour inthe Four Phases
|Phase I||Phase II||Phase III||Phase IV|
|Worldview||World as Mystery over which I have No Control||World as Problem||World as Proejct||World as a Mystery Cared for|
|Values||Self-Perservation and Delight||Self-Worth and Competence||World as Project||World as a Mystery cared for|
The leaderin this phase is internally motivated, behaviour ise self choseen. They see that people ahve a need for independence and self-direction, for ownership and personal intitiative in efforts forcommunity development, for outlets for personal creativity. The leader who best suits Phase III is the reformer-revolutionary, the defender of the oppressed, the energizer, the influencer, the creative innovator.
Phase Four Consciousness:
"At this phase theindividuals perception of the world expands dramatically - to the world as a mystery for which we must care. People seek to perform tasks in conjunction with other like-minded men and women to satisfy the communal need for global harmony. The individual self is transcended and thepersons act interdepenently with other selves. The "Ií has become "We" to give life to the Globasl World".
This phase of consciousness is the least known about, rarely seen and yet ;we have glimpases that it is possible and can be aimed at. Some signs of this consciousness include people choosing volunbtary simplicity and communitarian life styles committed to cooperation, non-consumerism, conservation and respect for organic development. Sharing becomes their way of life.
Other signs are increased solidarity across cultural, national, class, religious, and political issues - the international womenís movement, movements of presrvation of the environment: Chipko, Fishermenís Movement, and movements against big dams, etc. are examples of these.
Please Four leadership always understands the value of interdependent administration and decision - making. Persons have a "systematic" rather than in part view of an organization and the world. "These like-minded persons see the world as a mystery, for which people take authority to create and enhance the environment. They work in cooperation with others and with nature itself in a common interdependent action that seeks harmonious balance. Such persons view the world as an unfinished work, its present condition is not nearly so important as its future potentiality. In Phase Four the world is perceived as a mystery-to-be-carried-for.
The self is transcended from"I" to "we" to a communal call to mankind to renew the face of the earth. In common interdependent action a unity begins to emerge between mankind and his technology. The harmonious balance envisioned in Phase Four see things in their wholeness and to understand the interrelatedness of parts. The concept of harmony applies to the inner life of the individual as well as well as to the external world.
Insights from Eastern religions and from depth psychology have raised a new awareness of the potential aof personal harmony. Intimacy and solitude becomes unitive. The Phase Four person realizes that this harmony must be extended to technology and society at largehe global community.
Phase Four selves seek to enliven, to nature persons and communities from the context of consciousness that is meaninful to them." The kind of leadership required is contemplative leadership, and consensus global government. Few leaders ever enter this phase of consciousness, but some people do achieve a vision, however partial anbd limited. Vision means creating plans which deal with specific like establishing interdependent systems and networks, producing insights into current problems leading to synergetic solutions and organizing programs of discipline that will make corporat and intimate leadership teams a possibility. Figure 9 helps to summarize this section.
THE STAGES OF VALUE DEVELOPMENT
Values are related to a personís meaning system - to the phases of consciousness - to behaviour - and to the level of skill development. Values give a person meaning and shape their life-style. They are human motivators. Values change as a person matures and as new values form the center of personís meaning system. We can distinguish between individual values (private sphere) that enter around personal activity and attitudes and those that focus outward toward institutions: institutional values (public sphere). We can also distinguish primary values that constitute the individualís care of meaning and the means values that are the prime skill values enabling the person to realize the core primary values.
See Figure 10 for the primary and means values in the eitht stages of value development, and Appendix 1 ends values in their stage of development.
In the above figures we see thast values are stressed in a phased manner. The leader needs a supportive community to develop these values. If the leader and the group identity the forces behind and around each value - they can then see what prevents and what enhances each personís growth and set goals to achieve it. Values are everyoneís concern, the problem is to specify them behaviourally and thereby recognize them as operating in our structures and in oursleves. This can be a powerful tool for both leader and group to grow personally, interpersonally, and towards global responsibility. It is also a good ;way to identify and develop leaders.
If you look at leader style wholistically, you must see :
(a) Where the leader came from, his past life experiences.
(b) Where the leader is now.
(c) Where the leader aspires to grow.
In the past, we ;thought of leadership development mainly in terms of helping people and organizations grow - but today the chaos in the world is so encompassing that we must add on the essential goal of building anew earth of peace and justice.We have many examples of such leaders J.P. Narayan, Acharya Kripalani, Gandhiji, Baba Amte - men ready to suffer and die to keep alive their set of values for the new Society. Hope is their strongest weapon - hope in the utopian society which organizes people to follow them and empowers them to struggle for it. Utopia is to society, what hope ;is to the individual. Yutopia and hope are both visions of reality that come ahead of time. One has to learn how to be an instrument for the future while living contained within the limitations and frustrations of an environment that still bears the stamp of the past.
Value based leadership development focuses on bringing people to the level of being with one another in a way that alolows them to call forth from one another, the changes needed to be more than they are and mor ethan they believe they can be. Leadership is a process of emergence which ;uses ythe strength of the resources present, to people, the environment, the world.
SOME ASPECTS OF VALUE BASED LEADERSHI
1. Open Communication : The honest sharing of thoughts and feelings, to theextent that there is not an infringement of human dignity.
2. Process evaluation : An ongoing assessment of the status of the group on how people work together, using feedback and caring confrontation.
Primary and means Values in the Eight Stages of Value Development
|PHASE ONE||PHASE TWO||PHASE THREE||PHASE FOUR|
|Elements in the phases of consciousness||The self struggles to survive in an alien oppressive, capricious environment||The self seeks to belong in a significant human environment and to be approved by significant persons||The self strives to reshape the natural, social and cultural environments with conscience and independence||Selves enliven the global environment through the union of intimacy and solitude and the harmony of systems.|
|Stae IA||Stage IB||Stage IIA||Staeg IIB||stage IIIA||stage IIIB||Stage IVA||Stage IVB|
|Primary Values||Self as Centre||Discovery||Achieement||power||Creating||Wisdom||Synergy|
|which are ends in tehmselves and which constitute the core of meaning||Self-preservation Survival/ Warmth Food||Security Affection Self Deslight Winder Sensory Plesure||Family/Belonging Self-worth Appreciation Freidnship||Self-com-petence / Confidence Success Prestige||Life/ Self-actualization Service/ Vocation Independence||Being Self Leisure Human Dignity Service Co-operation||Intimacy Solitude Transcendence Harmony||Beauty Truth Knowledge Simplicity|
|Means Values which are prime skill values||Safety/Survival||Instrumentality |
|Accountability/ Mutual Responsibility||Inter-dependence||Convivial Tools/ inter-mediate Technology|
When the individual consistently manifests behaviour that is indicative of a value, he has actualized or internalized, that value into his meaning system, he has learned new behaviour -, acquired skills - with which he consistently acts. Thus behaviour ;can be conceptually related to values in two ways; (1) behaviour can be considered as a value indicator, and (2) behaviour can be considered as a learned skill associated with the value it indicates, see Appendix 2.
|THE CHARACTER OF MAN||PHASE||THE WORLD VIEW|
|The ALIENATED Man..||ONE||In a HOSTILE world.|
|The ORGANIZATION Man..||TWO||In a SOCIAL world.|
|The INDEPENDENT Man..||THREE||In a world as PROJECT|
|Man as PROPHET||FOUR||In a world to be CARED FOR.|
The Character of Man Associated with the three Transitional Levels of Leadership
The Character of man
|The World View|
The PRESERVATIVE Man
|...in a HOSTILE world|
The COMMUNAL man
|... in a SOCIAL world|
The CREATOR Man
|... in the world as PROJECT|
The Seven Levels of Leadership related to the Stages of Value Development and Phases of Consciousness
THE CHARACTER OF MAN WITHIN PHASES
|THE CHARACTER OF MAN BETWEEN PHASES|
|(1) The ALIENATED Man|
|The PRESERVATIVE Man (2)|
|(3) The ORGANIZATION Man|
|The COMMUNAL Man (4)|
|(5) The INDEPENDENT Man|
|The CREATOR Man (6)|
|(7) Man as PROPHET|
In our earlier writing on leadership we ended with what we called the emergent or incarnational leadership model. In this model we stressed liberating power in action, where leadership is horizontal rather than vertical. More and more people are ;involved in the leadership function. The leader aids liberation of power in the people and helps them mature. The emergent leader assesses needs together with the group and there sees how the different members can most effectively take part in those actions. This is leadership from below. The incarnational leader has a deep and genuine respect for people, and for their human potential to transform theirown lives. The emergent leader is accountable to the people, equal to them, and open to the group. He works at the pace of people - is sensitive to the ;world view of the people. This would fit Brian Hallís severvant leadership role.
There are four types of leader-ship as they relate to the stages of value development and phases of consciousness can be seen if Figure 13.
SEVEN LEADERSHIP FOLLOWERSHIP STYLES
Seven Leadership Followership Styles :To get a better understanding we will define each style in relation to the attitudes, values, and skills characteristics of each.
Level 1 : The Allienated Man : The leadership style will be the most primitive, an autocratic dictator or a tyrant. This leader assumes people hate to work and must be threatened with puhnishment. The followers perceive themselves as victims of power. Distance between leader and follower increases alienation and dependency. At level 1 the leadership style is autocratic, ;the followers are dependent and oppressed. For both, the world is hostile and they must struggle to survive.
Level 2 : The Preservation Man : Here the leader can just cope, but basically feels overwhelmed. The leader is like a father, teacher, or successful politician. The dictator has become benevelent, even paternal in behaviour. The challenge is to conquer the alien world. The leader wants to preserve himself and his world. Level 2 followers remain dependent personalities who blindly obey.
Level 3 : The Organization Man : Here both leader and followers are loyally devoted to the institution. Competence and productivity are valued but always within the "system".
Level 4 : The Communal Man : Here the struggle is to bridge the gap between Phase Two and Thtree consciousness and the conflict creates confusion betwwen the roles of leader and follopwer. The leader and followers assume the role of clarifier, supporter, and listener. Consequently nothing gets done. This stype is self-defeating and does not last long.
Level 5 : The Independent Man : Here both leaders and followers begin to experience their own ;creativity and authority. The leader is enthusiastic, visionary, with skills of empathy and confrontation. He seeks to be truly democratic but fails to fix time for team/community building which allow democracy to work. Values the imagination and ;use of a professional peer support structure, but does not structure time for these to become actualized.
Level 6 : The Creator Man : Leadership is plural, based on the resourdces of interdependent peers. Both interpersonal and systems skills are highly developed. Level 6 marks the transition into a new phase of consciousness in which the individuals always view the parts in relation to the whole. Efficiency and productivity blend with good of society as a whole. The predominent values are presence, interdependence, and harmony.
Level 7 : Man is Prophet : Level 7 is not to be found in the practical order of leadership. Rather, it is the vision that gives perspective to the above six levels. The Level 7 leader exists as a voice, a prophet who enables leadership at all levels to become aware of the larger sounder global vision. It is the voice that points to interdependence as the essential value at every level of administration. It is the voice that claims that world peace and global cooperation on natural resources will be achieved only as these values are internalized locally. The Level 7 vision deals with societal harmony that flows from a personal meaning system found in that kind of intimacy and solitude usually thought of as deeply religious. The skills associated with the values of harmoney and the union of intimacy and solitude are passive concentration in prayer, faith, and active compassion.
The Seven Levels of Leadership within the Phaes of Consciousness and the Stages of Value Development
Style of Leadership
|Autocrat as Tyrant Dicttor||Autocrat as Godfather Benvolent dictator||Autocraft As Bureaucraft Benevolent paternalist||Laissex Faire Leader as Clarifier Supporter Listener||Democrat as Charismatic leader Facilitator||Democrat as |
Collegial leader Servant interdependent administrators
|Visioneries as |
Global network of persons
|The Character of Man||The Alienated Man||The Preservative Man||The Organizational Man||The Communal man||The Independent Man||The Creator Man||The Man as Prophet|
|Style of Followership||Opposed |
|the Servant |
|The Dedicated servant Loyally devoted to institution||Role Confusion Clarifier |
|Intermediate peer Participation||Collegial participation||Peer Visionaries.|
|Follwership||LEVEL 1||LEVEL 2||LEVEL 3||LEVEL 4||LEVEL 5||LEVEL 6||LEVEL 7|
|Values||Stage 1A||Stage 1B||Stage IIA||Stage IIB||Stage IIIA||Stage IIIB||Stage IVA||Stage IVB|
Figure 14 recalls four aspects of Hallís consciousness and value theory that bear directly on the development of leadership :
(1) The experience of leadership styles is developmental in nature.
(2) A shift in consciousness precedes the jmovement from one level to a subsequent level.
(3) New values become actualized through the development of skills.
(4) The four types of skills - imaginal, instrumental, interpersonal, and systems skills - tend to defvelop at specific phases of consciousness.
LEADERSHIP TRAINING AND MOTIVATION :
Changing times must shift us to changing modes of leadership training. Today we can include courses which -
Appendix 2 illustrates that diffedrent skills are needed at each phase of consciousness. Our world demands interdependence for survival, a skill requiring ;a high phase of consciousness. We must face and overcome new challenges. The leader must be aware of the complexity as they view the system as a totalitym and have the imaginal capacity to see hopeful futures or alternatives, and the skill to achieve the possible.
We have the tools now for developing holistic and socially creative collective leaders. Social reconstruction based on this approach is a process of conscientization and the technical ability to make operational the values of which one becomes conscious.
The consciousness - value theory provides structure that supports a holistic approach to human growth. Since the levels of followership are also developmental, caring persons can seek to create for others good experiences of leadership at each level.
See Appendix 3 for an extended description of all we have covered in this chapter on leadership. Also see a case study in Appendix 4 showing how this works in community and social change.
THE NEED FOR SOCIETAL/SERVANT LEADERS
As we see our world we can see the problem of global poverty in the midst of plenty, we see the problem of the colour linehe relation of the darker to the lighter races of men-we see the division between the haves and the have - nots. As we saw nation after nation emerge from colonial rule in this century, we saw that the leaders could choose - either to work towards relieving the burdens of exploitation and oppression, or to continue it. Thus independence has led to some nations rising and some falling in response to the quality of leadership at the helm.
If we look to Africa and other Third World countries we can see two types of leadership :
Instrumental : power and influence are used in pursuit of private goals (personal, family, clique) and only secondarily community objectives.
Societal/Servant : power and influence are important only to the extent that they can be harnessed for the solution of human problems.
Instrumental leadership - Societal/Servant
- Power and influence used - Power and influence used mainly for private goals to solve human problems (personal close family,clique)
- Uses his office to underwrite - Has broad community- personal objectives rega