DISABILITY :CHALLENGES VS RESPONSES
( By Ali Baquer; Anjali Sharma )

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app-The Persons With Disabilities Act, 1995


  1. This Act may be called the Persons With Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995.
  2. It extends to the whole of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  3. It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification, appoint.

2. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, -


(a) "appropriate Government" means, -



  1. in relation to the Central Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government, or a Cantonment Board constituted under the Cantonment Act, 1924, the Central Government;
  2. in relation to a State Government or any establishment wholly or substantially financed by that Government, or any local authority, other than a Cantonment Board, the State Government;
  3. in respect of the Central Coordination Committee and the Central Executive Committee, the Central Government;
  4. in respect of the State Coordination Committee and the State Executive Committee, the State Government;

(b) "blindness" refers to a condition where a person suffers from any of the following conditions, namely:-



  1. total absence of sight; or
  2. visual acuity not exceeding 6/60 or 20/200 (snellen) in the better eye with correcting lenses; or
  3. limitation of the field of vision subtending an angle of 20 degree or worse;


  1. "Central Coordination Committee" means the Central Coordination Committee constituted under sub-section (1) of section 3;
  2. "Central Executive Committee" means the Central Coordination Committee constituted under sub-section (1) of section 9;
  3. "cerebral palsy" means a group of non-progressive conditions of a person characterised by abnormal motor control posture resulting from brain insult or injuries occurring in the pre-natal, peri-natal or infant period of development;
  4. "Chief Commissioner" means the Chief Commissioner appointed under sub-section (1) of section 57;
  5. "Commissioner" means the Commissioner appointed under sub-section (1) of section 60;
  6. "competent authority" means the authority appointed under section 50;
  7. "disability" means -


  1. blindness;
  2. low vision;
  3. leprosy-cured;
  4. hearing impairment;
  5. locomotor disability;
  6. mental retardation;
  7. mental illness;

(j) "employer" means,



  1. in relation to a Government, the authority notified by the Head of the Department in this behalf or where no such authority is notified, the Head of the Department; and
  2. in relation to an establishment, the chief executive officer of that establishment;


  1. "establishment" means a corporation established by or under a Central, Provincial or State Act, or an authority or a body owned or controlled or aided by the Government or a local authority or a Government company as defined in section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 and includes Departments of a Government;
  2. "hearing impairment" means loss of sixty decibels or more in the better ear in the conversational range of frequencies;
  3. "institution for persons with disabilities" means an institution for the reception, care, protection, education, training, rehabilitation or any other service of persons with disabilities;
  4. "leprosy cured person" means any person who has been cured of leprosy but is suffering from -


  1. loss of sensation in hands or feet as well as loss of sensation and paresis in the eye and eye-lid but with no manifest deformity;
  2. manifest deformity and paresis but having sufficient mobility in their hands and feet to enable them to engage in normal economic activity;
  3. extreme physical deformity as well as advanced age which prevents him from undertaking any gainful occupation, and the expression "leprosy cured" shall be construed accordingly;


  1. "locomotor disability" means disability of the bones, joints or muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or any form of cerebral palsy;
  2. "medical authority" means any hospital or institution specified for the purposes of this Act by notification by the appropriate Government;
  3. "mental illness" means any mental disorder other than mental retardation;
  4. "mental retardation" means a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind of a person which is specially characterised by subnormality of intelligence;
  5. "notification" means a notification published in the Official Gazette;
  6. "person with disability" means a person suffering from not less than forty per cent of any disability as certified by a medical authority;
  7. "person with low vision" means a person with impairment of visual functioning even after treatment or standard refractive correction but who uses or is potentially capable of using vision for the planning or execution of a task with appropriate assistive device;
  8. "prescribed" means prescribed by rules made under this Act;
  9. "rehabilitation" refers to a process aimed at enabling persons with disabilities to reach and maintain their optimal physical, sensory, intellectual, psychiatric or social functional levels;
  10. "special Employment Exchange" means any office or place established and maintained by the Government for the collection and furnishing of information, either by keeping of registers or otherwise, respecting -


  1. persons who seek to engage employees from amongst the persons suffering from disabilities;
  2. persons with disability who seek employment;
  3. vacancies to which person with disability seeking employment may be appointed;


  1. "state Coordination Committee" means the State Coordination Committee constituted under sub-section (1) of section 13;
  2. "state Executive Committee" means the State Executive Committee constituted under sub-section (1) of section 19.

The Central Coordination Committee


(1) The Central Government shall by notification constitute a body to be known as the Central Coordination Committee to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the functions assigned to it, under this Act.


2. The Central Coordination Committee shall consist of -



  1. the Minister in charge of the Department of Welfare in the Central Government, Chairperson, ex officio;
  2. the Minister of State in-charge of the Department of Welfare in the Central Government, Vice-Chairperson, ex officio;
  3. Secretaries to the Government of India in-charge of the Departments of Welfare, Education, Woman and Child Development, Expenditure, Personnel, Training and Public Grievances, Health, Rural Development, Industrial Development, Urban Affairs and Employment, Science and Technology, Legal Affairs, Public Enterprises, Members, ex officio;
  4. Chief Commissioner, Member, ex officio;
  5. Chairman Railway Board, Member, ex officio;
  6. Director-General of Labour, Employment and Training, Member, ex officio;
  7. Director, National Council for Educational Research and Training, Member, ex officio;
  8. three Members of Parliament, of whom two shall be elected by the House of the People and one by the Council of States, Members;
  9. three persons to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the interests, which in the opinion of that Government ought to be represented, Members;
  10. Directors of the -


  1. National Institute for the Visually Handicapped, Dehradun;
  2. National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped, Secundrabad;
  3. National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped, Calcutta;
  4. Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped, Mumbai, Members, ex officio;


  1. four Members to be nominated by the Central Government by rotation to represent the States and the Union territories in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government:
    Provided that no appointment under this clause shall be made except on the recommendation of the State Government or, as the case may be, the Union territory;

  2. five persons as far as practicable, being persons with disabilities, to represent non-governmental organisations or associations which are concerned with disabilities, to be nominated by the Central Government, one from each area of disability, Members:
    Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the Central Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes;

  3. Joint Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Welfare dealing with the welfare of the handicapped, Member-Secretary, ex officio.

(3) The office of the Member of the Central Coordination Committee shall not disqualify its holder for being chosen as or for being a Member of either House of Parliament.


4. (1) Save as otherwise provided by or under this Act a Member of Central Coordination Committee nominated under clause (i) or clause (1) of sub-section (2) of section 3 shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of his nomination;
Provided that such a Member shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.


(2) The term of office an ex officio Member shall come to an end as soon as he ceases to hold the office by virtue of which he was so nominated.


(3) The Central Government may if it thinks fit remove any Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (1) of sub-section (2) of section 3, before the expiry of his term of office after giving him a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same.


(4) A Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (1) of sub-section (2) of section 3 may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government and the seat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant.


(5) A casual vacancy in the Central Coordination Committee shall be filled by a fresh nomination and the person nominated to fill the vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term for which the Member in whose place he was so nominated.


(6) A Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (1) of sub-section (2) of section 3 shall eligible for renomination.


(7) Members nominated under clause (i) and clause (1) of sub-section (2) of section 3 shall receive such allowances as may be prescribed by the Central Government.


5. (1) No person shall be a Member of the Central Coordination Committee, who-



  1. is, or at any time has been, adjudged insolvent or has suspended payment of his debts or has compounded with his creditors, or
  2. is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court, or
  3. is or has been convicted of an offence which, in the opinion of the Central Government, involves moral turpitude, or
  4. is or at any time has been convicted of an offence under this Act, or
  5. has so abused in the opinion of the Central Government his position as a Member as to render his continuance in the Central Coordination Committee detrimental to the interests of the general public.

(2) No order of removal shall be made by the Central Government under this section unless the Member concerned has been given a resonable opportunity of showing cause against the same.


(3) Not withstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) or sub-section (6) of section 4, a Member who has been removed under this section shall not be eligible for renomination as a Member.


6. If a Member of the Central Coordination Committee becomes subject to any of the disqualifications specified in section 5, his seat shall become vacant.


7. The Central Coordination Committee shall meet at least once in every six months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed by the Central Government.


8. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the function of the Central Coordination Committee shall be to serve as the national focal point on disabilty matters and facilitate the continuous evolution of a comprehensive policy towards solving the problems faced by persons with disabilities.


(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the Central Coordination Committee may perform all or any of the following functions, namely :-



  1. review and coordinate the activities of all the Departments of Government and other Governmental and non-Governmental Organisations which are dealing with matters relating to persons with disabilities;
  2. develop a national policy to address issues faced by persons with disabilities;
  3. advise the Central Government on the formulation of policies, programmes, legislation and projects with respect to disability;
  4. take up the cause of persons with disabilities with the concerned authorities and the international organisations with a view to provide for schemes and projects for the disabled in the national plans and other programmes and policies evolved by the international agencies;
  5. review in consultation with the donor agencies their funding policies from the perspective of their impact on persons with disabilities;
  6. take such other steps to ensure barrier free environment in Public places, work places, public utilities, schools and other institutions;
  7. monitor and evaluate the impact of policies and programmes designed for achieving equality and full participation of persons with disabilities;
  8. to perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the Central Government.

9. (1) The Central Government shall constitute a Committee to be known as the Central Executive Committee to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act.


(2) The Central Executive Committee shall consist of -



  1. the Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Welfare, Chairperson, ex officio;
  2. the Chief Commissioner, Member, ex officio;
  3. the Director-General for Health Services, Member, ex officio;
  4. the Director-General, Employment and Training, Member, ex officio;
  5. six persons not below the rank of a Joint Secretary to the Government of India, to represent the Ministries or Departments of Rural Development, Education, Welfare, Personnel Public Grievances and Pension and Urban Affairs and Employment, Science and Technology, Member, ex officio;
  6. the Financial Adviser, Ministry of Welfare in the Central Government, Member, ex officio;
  7. advisor (Tariff) Railway Board, Member, ex officio;
  8. four members to be nominated by the Central Government, by rotation, to represent the State Governments and the Union territories in such manner as may be prescribed by the Central Government;
  9. one person to be nominated by the Central Government to represent the interest, which in the opinion of the Central Government ought to be represented, Member;
  10. five persons, as far as practicable, being persons with disabilities, to represent non-governmental organisations or associations which are concerned with disabilities, to be nominated by the Central Government, one from each area of disability, Members:
    Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the Central Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes:

  11. Joint Secretary to the Government of India in the Ministry of Welfare dealing with the welfare of the handicapped, Member-Secretary, ex officio.

(3) Member nominated under clause (i) and clause (i) of sub-section (2) shall receive such allowances as may be prescribed by the Central Government.


(4) A Member nominated under clause (i) or clause (i) of sub-section (2) may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the Central Government and the seat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant.


10. (1) The Central Executive Committee shall be the executive body of the Central Coordination Committee and shall be responsible for carrying out the decisions of the Central Coordination Committee:


(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Central Executive Committee shall also perform such other functions as may be delegated to it by the Central Coordination Committee.


11. The Central Executive Committee shall meet at least once in three months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed by the Central Government.


12. (1) The Central Executive Committee may associate with itself in such manner and for such purposes as may be prescribed by the Central Government any person whose assistance or advice it may desire to obtain in performing any of its functions under this Act.


(2) A person associated with the Central Executive Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall have the right to take part in the discussions of the Central Executive Committee relevant to that purpose, but shall not have a right to vote at a meeting of the said Committee, and shall not be a member for any other purpose.


(3) A person associated with the said Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall be paid such fees and allowances, for attending its meetings and for attending to any other work of the said Committee, as may be prescribed by the Central Government.


The State Coordination Committee


13. (1) Every State Government shall, by notification, constitute a body to be known as the State Coordination Committee to exercise the powers conferred on, and to perform the function assigned to it, under this Act.


(2) the State Coordination Committee shall consist of -



  1. The Minister in-charge of the Department of Social Welfare in the State Government, Chairperson, ex officio;
  2. the Minister of State in-charge of the Department of Social Welfare, if any, Vice-Chairperson, ex officio;
  3. Secretaries to the State Government in-charge of the Departments of Welfare, Education, Woman and Child Development, Expenditure, Personnel Training and Public Grievances, Health, Rural Development, Industrial Development, Urban Affairs and Employment, Science and Technology, Public Enterprises, by whatever name called, Members, ex officio;
  4. Secretary of any other Department which the State Government considers necessary, Member, ex officio;
  5. Chairman Bureau of Public Enterprises (by whatever name called) Member, ex officio;
  6. five persons, as far as practicable, being persons with disabilities, to represent non-governmental organisations or associations which are concerned with disabilities, to be nominated by the State Government, one from each area of disability, Members:
    Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the State Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes;

  7. three Members of State Legislature, of whom two shall be elected by the Legislative Assembly and one by the Legislative Council, if any;
  8. three persons to be nominated by that State Government to represent agriculture, industry or trade or any other interest, which in the opinion of State Government ought to be represented, Members, ex officio;
  9. the Commissioner, Member, ex officio;
  10. Secretary to the State Government dealing with the welfare of the handicapped, Member-Secretary, ex officio.

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this section, no State Coordination Committee shall be constituted for a Union territory and in relation to a Union territory, the Central Coordination Committee shall exercise the functions and perform the functions of a State Coordination Committee for the Union territory:
Provided that in relation to a Union territory, the Central Coordination Committee may delegate all or any of its powers and functions under this sub-section to such person or body of persons as the Central Government may specify.


14. (1) Save as other wise provided by or under this Act, a Member of a State Coordination Committee nominated, Under clause (f) or clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13 shall hold office for a term of three years from the date of his nomination:
Provided that such a Member shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.


(2) The term of office of an ex officio Member shall come to an end as soon as be ceases to hold the office by virtue of which he was so nominated.


(3) The State Government may, if it thinks fit, remove any Member nominated under clause (f) or clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13, before the expiry of his term of office after giving him a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same.


(4) A Member nominated under clause (f) or clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13 may, at any time, resign his office by writing under his hand addressed to the State Government and the seat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant.


(5) A casual vacancy in the State Coordination Committee shall be filled by a fresh nomination and the person nominated to fill the vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term for which the Member in whose place he was so nominated.


(6) A Member nominated under clause (f) and clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13 shall be eligible for renomination.


(7) Members nominated under clause (f) and clause (h) of sub-section (2) of section 13 shall receive such allowances as may be prescribed by the State Government.


15. (1) No person shall be a Member of the State Coordination Committee, who -



  1. is, or at any time, has been adjudged insolvent or has suspended payment of his debts or has compounded with his creditors, or
  2. is of unsound mind and stands so declared by a competent court, or
  3. is or has been convicted of an offence which in the opinion of the State Government involves moral turpitude, or
  4. is or at any time has been convicted of an offence under this Act, or
  5. has so abused, in the opinion of the State Government his position as a member as to render his contin-uance in the State Coordination Committee detrimental to the interests of the general public.

(2) No order of removal shall be made by the State Government under this section unless the Member concerned has been given a reasonable opportunity of showing cause against the same.


(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1) or sub-section (6) of section 14, a Member who has been removed under this section shall not be eligible for renomination as a Member.


16. If a Member of the State Coordination Committee becomes subject to any of the disqualifications specified in section 15, his seat shall become vacant.


17. The State Coordination Committee shall meet at least once in every six months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed.


18. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Act, the function of the State Coordination Committee shall be to serve as the state focal point on disability matters and facilitate the continuous evolution of a comprehensive policy towards solving the problems faced by persons with disabilities.


(2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing function the State Coordination Committee may, within the State perform all or any of the following functions, namely:-



  1. review and coordinate the activities of all the Departments of Government and other Govern-mental and non-Governmental Organisations which are dealing with matters relating to persons with disabilities;
  2. develop a State policy to address issues faced by persons with disabilities;
  3. advise the State Government on the formulation of policies, progr-ammes, legislation and projects with respect to disability;
  4. review, in consultation with the donor agencies, their funding policies from the perspective of their impact on persons with disabilities;
  5. take such other steps to ensure barrier free environment in public places, work places, public utilities, schools and other institutions;
  6. monitor and evaluate the impact of policies and programmes designed for achieving equality and full participation of persons with disabilities;
  7. to perform such other functions as may be prescribed by the State Government.

19. (1) The State Government shall constitute a committee to be known as the State Executive Committee to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act
The State Government shall constitute a committee to be known as the State Executive Committee to perform the functions assigned to it under this Act.


(2) The State Executive Committee shall consist of -



  1. the Secretary, Department of Social Welfare, Chairperson, ex officio;
  2. the Commissioner, Member, ex officio;
  3. nine persons not below the rank of a Joint Secretary to the State Government, to represent the Departments of Health, Finance, Rural Development, Education, Welfare, Personnel Public Grievances, Urban Affairs Labour and Employment, Science and Technology, Members, ex officio;
  4. one person to be nominated by the State Government to represent the interest, which in the opinion of the State Government ought to be represented, Member;
  5. five persons, as far as practicable being persons with disabilities, to represent non-governmental organisations or associations which are concerned with disabilities, to be nominated by the State Government, one from each area of disability, Members:
    Provided that while nominating persons under this clause, the State Government shall nominate at least one woman and one person belonging to Scheduled Castes or Scheduled Tribes;

  6. Joint Secretary dealing with the disability division in the Department of Welfare, Member-Secretary, ex officio.

(3) Members nominated under clause (d) and clause (e) of sub-secion (2) shall receive such allowances as may be prescribed by the State Government.


(4) A Member nominated under clause (d) or clause (e) may at any time resign his office by writing under his hand address to the State Government and the seat of the said Member shall thereupon become vacant.


20. (1) The State Executive Committee shall be the executive body of the State Coordination Committee and shall be responsible for carrying out the decisions of the State Coordination Committee.


(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the State Executive Committee shall also perform such other functions as may be delegated to it by the State Coordination Committee.


21. The State Executive Committee shall meet at least once in three months and shall observe such rules of procedure in regard to the transaction of business at its meetings as may be prescribed by the State Government.


22. (1) The State Executive Committee may associate with itself in such manner and for such purposes as may be prescribed by the State Government any person whose assistance or advice it may desire to obtain in performing any of its functions under this Act.


(2) A person associated with the State Executive Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall have the right to take part in the discussions of the State Executive Committee relevant to that purpose, but shall not have a right to vote at a meeting of the said Committee, and shall not be a member for any other purpose.


(3) A person associated with the said Committee under sub-section (1) for any purpose shall be paid such fees and allowances, for attending its meetings and for attending to any other work of the said Committee, as may be prescribed by the State Government.


23. In the performance of its functions under this Act, -



  1. the Central Coordination Committee shall be bound by such directions in writing, as the Central Government may give to it; and
  2. the State Coordination Committee shall be bound by such directions in writing, as the Central Coordination Committee or the State Government may give to it:
    Provided that where a direction given by the State Government is inconsistent with any direction given by the Central Coordination Committee, the matter shall be referred to the Central Government for its decision.

24. No act or proceeding of the Central Coordination Committee, the Central Executive Committee, a State Coordination Committee or a State Executive Committee shall be called in question on the ground merely on the existence of any vacancy in or any defect in the constitution of such Committees.


Prevention and Early Detection of Disabilities


25. Within the limits of their economic capacity and development, the appropriate Governments and the local authorities, with a view to preventing the occurrence of disabilities, shall -



  1. undertake or cause to be undertaken surveys, investigations and research concerning the cause of occurrence of disabilities;
  2. promote various methods of preventing disabilities;
  3. screen all the children at least once in a year for the purpose of identifying "at-risk" cases;
  4. provide facilities for training to the staff at the primary health centres;
  5. sponsor or cause to be sponsored awareness campaigns and disseminate or cause to be disseminated information for general hygiene, health and sanitation;
  6. take measures for pre-natal, perinatal and post-natal care of mother and child;
  7. educate the public through the pre-schools, primary health centres, village level workers and anganwadi workers;
  8. create awareness amongst the masses through television, radio and other mass media on the causes of disabilities and the preventive measures to be adopted.

Education


26. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall -



  1. ensure that every child with a disability has access to free education in an appropriate environment till he attains the age of eighteen years;
  2. endeavour to promote the integration of students with disabilities in the normal schools;
  3. promote setting up of special schools in Government and private sector for those in need of special education, in such a manner that children with disabilities living in any part of the country have access to such schools;
  4. endeavour to equip the special schools for children with disabilities with vocational training facilities.

27. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall by notification make schemes for -



  1. conducting part-time classes in respect of children with disabilities who having completed education up to class fifth and could not continue their studies on a whole-time basis;
  2. conducting special part-time classes for providing functional literacy for children in the age group of sixteen and above;
  3. imparting non-formal education by utilizing the available manpower in rural areas after giving them appropriate orientation;
  4. imparting education through open schools or open universities;
  5. conducting class and discussions through interactive electronic or other media;
  6. providing every child with disability free of cost special books and equipments needed for his education.

28. The appropriate Governments shall initiate or cause to be initiated research by official and non-governmental agencies for the purpose of designing and developing new assistive devices, teaching aids, special teaching materials or such other items as are necessary to give a child with disability equal opportunities in education.


29. The appropriate Governments shall set up adequate number of teachers’ training institutions and assist the national institutes and other voluntary organisations to develop teachers’ training programmes specialising in disabilities so that requisite trained manpower is available for special schools and integrated schools for children with disabilities.


30. Without prejudice to the foregoing provisions, the appropriate Governments shall by notification prepare a comprehensive education scheme which shall make provision for -



  1. transport facilities to the children with disabilities or in the alternative financial incentives to parents or guardians to enable their children with disabilities to attend schools;
  2. the removal of architectural barriers from schools, colleges or other institutions imparting vocational and professional training;
  3. the supply of books, uniforms and other materials to children with disabilities attending school;
  4. the grant of scholarship to students with disabilities;
  5. setting up of appropriate fora for the redressal of grievances of parents regarding the placement of their children with disabilities;
  6. suitable modification in the examination system to eliminate purely mathematical questions for the benefit of blind students and students with low vision;
  7. restructuring of curriculum for the benefit of children with disabilities;
  8. restructuring the curriculum for benefit of students with hearing impairment to facilitate them to take only one language as part of their curriculum.

31. All educational institutions shall provide or cause to be provided amanuensis to blind students and students with or low vision.


Employment


32. Appropriate Governments shall -



  1. identify posts, in the establishments, which can be reserved for the persons with disability;
  2. at periodical intervals not exceeding three years, review the list of posts identified and up-date the list taking into consideration the developments in technology.

33. Every appropriate Government shall appoint in every establishment such percentage of vacancies not less than three per cent for persons or class of persons with disability of which one per cent each shall be reserved for persons suffering from -


(i) blindness or low vision;


(ii) hearing impairment;


(iii) locomotor disability or cerebral palsy,


in the posts identified for each disability:


Provided, that the appropriate Govern-ment may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any department or establishment, by notification subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section.


34. (1) The appropriate Government may, by notification, require that from such date as may be specified, by notification, the employer in every establishment shall furnish such information or return as may be prescribed in relation to vacancies appointed for persons with disability that have occurred or are about to occur in that establishment to such Special Employment Exchange as may be prescribed and the establishment shall thereupon comply with such requisition.


(2) The form in which and the intervals of time for which information or returns shall be furnished and the particulars, they shall contain shall be such as may be prescribed.


35. Any person authorised by the Special Employment Exchange in writing, shall have access to any relevant record or document in the possession of any establishment and may enter at any reasonable time and premises where he believes such record or document to be, and inspect or take copies of relevant records or documents or ask any question necessary for obtaining any information.


36. Where in any recruitment year any vacancy under section 33, cannot be filled up due to non-availability of a suitable person with disability or, for any other sufficient reason, such vacancy shall be carried forward in the succeeding recruitment year and if in the succeeding recruitment year also suitable person with disability is not available, it may first be filled by interchange among the three categories and only when there is no person with disability available for the post in that year, the employer shall fill up the vacancy by appointment of a person, other than a person with disability:
Provided that if the nature of vacancies in an establishment is such that a given category of person can not be employed, the vacancies may be interchanged among the three categories with the prior approval of the appropriate Government.


37. (1) Every employer shall maintain such record in relation to the person with disability employed in his establishment in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed by the appropriate government.


(2) The records maintained under sub-section (1) shall be open to inspection at all reasonable hours by such persons as may be authorised in this behalf by general or special order by the appropriate Government.


38. (1) The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall by notification formulate schemes for ensuring employment of persons with disabi-lities, and such schemes may provide



  1. the training and welfare of persons with disabilities;
  2. the relaxation of upper age limit;
  3. regulating the employment;
  4. health and safety measures and creation of a non-handicapping environment in places where persons with disabilities are employed;
  5. the manner in which and the persons by whom the cost of operating the schemes is to be defrayed; and
  6. constituting the authority responsible for the administration of the scheme.

39. All Government educational institutions and other educational institutions receiving aid from the Government, shall reserve not less than three per cent seats for persons with disabilities.


40. The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall reserve not less than three per cent in all poverty alleviation schemes for the benefit of persons with disabilities.


41. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide incentives to employers both in public and private sectors to ensure that at least five per cent of their work force is composed of persons with disabilities.


Affirmative Action


42. The appropriate Governments shall by notification make schemes to provide aids and appliances to persons with disabilities.


43. The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall by notification frame schemes in favour of persons with disabilities, for the preferential allotment of land at concessional rates for -



  1. house;
  2. setting up business;
  3. setting up of special recreation centres;
  4. establishment of special schools;
  5. establishment of research centres;
  6. establishment of factories by entrepreneurs with disabilities.

Non-Discrimination


44. Establishments in the transport sector shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development for the benefit of persons with disabilities, take special measures to-



  1. adapt rail compartments, buses, vessels and aircrafts in such a way as to permit easy access to such persons;
  2. adapt toilets in rail compartments, vessels, aircrafts and waiting rooms in such a way as to permit the wheel chair users to use them conveniently.

45. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide for -



  1. installation of auditory signals at red lights in the public roads for the benefit of persons with visual handicap;
  2. causing curb cuts and slopes to be made in pavements for the easy access of wheel chair users;
  3. engraving on the surface of the zebra crossing for the blind or for persons with low vision;
  4. engraving on the edges of railway platforms for the blind or for persons with low vision;
  5. devising appropriate symbols of disability;
  6. warning signals at appropriate places.

46. The appropriate Governments and the local authorities shall, within the limits of their economic capacity and development, provide for -



  1. ramps in public building;
  2. adaptation of toilets for wheel chair users;
  3. braille symbols and auditory signals in elevators or lifts;
  4. ramps in hospitals, primary health centres and other medical care and rehabilitation institutions.

47. (1) No establishment shall dispense with, or reduce in rank, an employee who acquires a disability during his service:
Provided that, if an employee, after acquiring disability is not suitable for the post he was holding, could be shifted to some other post with the same pay scale and service benefits:
Provided further that if it is not possible to adjust the employee against any post, he may be kept on a supernumerary post until a suitable post is available or he attains the age of superannuation, whichever is earlier.


(2) No promotion shall be denied to a person merely on the ground of his disability:
Provided that the appropriate Government may, having regard to the type of work carried on in any establishment, by notification and subject to such conditions, if any, as may be specified in such notification, exempt any establishment from the provisions of this section.


Research And Manpower Development


48. The appropriate Governments and local authorities shall promote and sponsor research, inter alia, in the following areas: -



  1. prevention of disability;
  2. rehabilitation including community based rehabilitation;
  3. development of assistive devices including their psycho-social aspects;
  4. job identification;
  5. on site modifications in offices and factories.

49. The appropriate Governments shall provide financial assistance to universities, other institutions of higher learning, professional bodies and non-governmental research-units or institutions, for undertaking research for special education, rehabilitation and manpower deve-lopment.


Recognition of Institutions for Persons with Disabilities


50. The State Government shall appoint any authority as it deems fit to be a competent authority for the purposes of this Act.


51. Save as otherwise provided under this Act, no person shall establish or maintain any institution for persons with disabilities except under and in accordance with a certificate of registration issued in this behalf by the competent authority:
Provided that a person maintaining an institution for persons with disabilities immediately before the commencement of this Act may continue to maintain such institution for a period of six months from
such commencement and if he has made an application for such certificate under this section within the said period of six months, till the disposal of such application.


52. (1) Every application for a certificate of registration shall be made to the competent authority in such form and in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government.


(2) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1), the competent authority shall make such enquiries as it may deem fit and where it is satisfied that the applicant has complied with the requirements of this Act and the rules made thereunder it shall grant a certificate of registration to the applicant and where it is not so satisfied the competent authority shall, by order, refuse to grant the certificate applied for :
Provided that before making any order refusing to grant a certificate the competent authority shall give to the applicant a reasonable opportunity of being heard and every order of refusal to grant a certificate shall be communicated to the applicant in such manner as may be prescribed by the State Government.


(3) No certificate of registration shall be granted under sub-section (2) unless the institution with respect to which an application has been made is in a position to provide such facilities and maintain such standards as may be prescribed by the State Government.


(4) A certificate of registration granted under this section,



  1. shall, unless revoked under section 53, remain in force for such period as may be prescribed by the State Government.
  2. may be renewed from time to time for a like period; and
  3. shall be in such form and shall be subject to such conditions as may be prescribed by the State Government.

(5) An application for renewal of a certificate of registration shall be made not less than sixty days before the period of validity.


(6) The certificate of registration shall be displayed by the institution in a conspicuous place.


53. (1) The competent authority may, if it has reasonable cause to believe that the holder of the certificate of registration granted under sub-section (2) of section 52 has -



  1. made a statement in relation to any application for the issue or renewal of the certificate which is incorrect or false in material particulars; or
  2. committed or has caused to be committed any breach of rules or any conditions subject to which the certificate was granted,
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