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( By Ali Baquer; Anjali Sharma )

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b-Statutory Welfare Services

In Section A, estimates of the numbers of disabled children and adults, could be made adults, belonging to all categories, are presented so that an idea of the enormity of the CHALLENGE disability presents to society could be made. In Section B, an assessment of the RESPONSE that society offers is described. It will never be possible to quantify the extent and value of the support the families and friends provide to disabled people. The entry of the private sector in the provision of services to disabled people is rather new in India and no reliable estimates of the numbers they serve are at present available. The bulk of evidence included here is of the help provided by the statutory services and by the NGOs funded by the governmental, international and other agencies.
Several ministries/departments of the Government of India provide various concessions and facilities which include :

Concession on Railways :
Railways allow disabled persons to travel at concessional fare upto 75% in the first and second classes. Escorts accompanying blind, orthopaedically and mentally handicapped persons are also eligible to 75% concession in the basic fare.

Air Travel Concessions :
Indian Airlines allow 50% concessional fare to blind persons on single journeys.

Postage :
Payment of postage, both inland and foreign, for transmission by post of ‘Blind Literature’ packets is exempted if sent by surface route.

Customs/Excise :
Braille paper has been exempted from excise and customs duty provided the paper is supplied direct to a school for the blind or to a Braille press against an indent placed by the National Institute for the Visually Handicapped, Dehradun. All audio cassettes recorded with material from books, newspapers or magazines for the blind are exempt from custom duty. Several other items have also been exempted from customs duty if imported for the use of a disabled person.

Conveyance Allowance :
All central government employees who are blind or orthopaedically handicapped are granted conveyance at 5 per cent of basic pay subject to a maximum of Rs. 100 per month.

Educational Allowance :
Reimbursement of tuition fee of physically and mentally handicapped children of the central government employees has been enhanced to Rs. 50/-.

Income Tax Concession :
The amount of deduction from total income of a person with blindness, mental retardation or permanent physical disability has been increased to Rs. 40,000/-.

Award of Dealership by Oil Companies :
The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas has reserved 7.5 per cent of all types of dealership agencies of the public sector companies for the orthopaedically handicapped and blind persons However, the blind persons are not eligible for LPG distribution. Similarly, the Ministry has also reserved 7.5 per cent of such dealership/agencies for defence personnel, severely disabled either in war or while on duty in peace time.

Posting :
Physically handicapped candidates who have been appointed on regional basis are given, as far as possible, postings near their native places.

Economic Assistance by Public Sector Banks :
All orphanages, women’s homes and physically handicapped persons as well as institutions working for the welfare of the handicapped are given loans and advances at very low rate of interest (4% under DRI) and 50% subsidy upto a maximum of Rs. 5,000/- is also admissible.
State Governments/Union Territories also give many concessions/facilities such as reservation in jobs, scholarships, old age pension, free travel in buses, etc. (For further details please refer to Appendix VI)

Collaboration to Combat Disability

District Rehabilitation Centre (DRC) Project
The Ministry of Welfare is the modal agency of the Central Government that promotes services for the people with disabilities through its various Schemes. The main objective of the policy of the Ministry is to promote services for people with disability through non-government organisations so that persons with disability are encouraged to become functionally independent and productive members of the nation through opportunities of education, vocational training, medical rehabilitation, and socio-economic rehabilitation. Emphasis is also placed on coordination of services particularly those related to health, nutrition, education, science and technology, employment, sports, cultural, art and craft and welfare programmes of various government and non-government organisations. The Ministry of Welfare has the following ongoing schemes which promote quality services to people with disability through non-government organisations.
In collaboration with the National Institute of Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), Washington, U.S.A., District Rehabilitation Centre (DRC) Project was taken up in 1985 for imparting training to DRC functionaries. A Central Administrative and Coordinaiton Unit (CACU) for coordinating and administering the activities of DRC was set up. Four Regional Rehabilitation Training Centres (RRTCs) – one each at Chennai, Mumbai, Cuttack and Lucknow – were established. A National Information Centre for Disability and Rehabilitation (NIDCR) was also set up.

Indian Spinal Injury Centre (ISIC), New Delhi :
Under Indo-Italian Agreement, Indian Spinal Injury Centre (ISIC), New Delhi has been constructed to provide comprehensive treatment, rehabilitation services, vocational training and guidance to spinal injury patients. It is the only Centre of its kind in Asia. The Centre proposes to conduct research in multidimensional aspects of rehabilitation of such patients. For joint funding of research component of Indian Spinal Injury Centre, a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was signed by NIDRR and Ministry of Welfare.
Assistance through Overseas Development Administration, UK on Urban Based Community Rehabilitation : Under Overseas Development Administration of the United Kingdom (ODA), Urban Community Based Rehabilitation Programme has been taken up in the cities of Calcutta, Bangalore and Vishakapatnam.

Training in the UK Under Colombo Plan
Every year, the Ministry of Welfare sponsors officers/NGOs for undergoing training in the U.K. under the Colombo Plan. The officers are nominated from Central Government, State Governments, National Institutes and from non-governmental organisations which are actively engaged in providing welfare services to the handicapped and disadvantaged. During 1995–96, 23 candidates were nominated under different categories for training in the UK.

UNICEF Assistance
Master Plan Operation (MPO) 1991–95 was launched in 1991, with the help of UNICEF, to prevent childhood disabilities in India. Master Plan of Operation has short-listed following components of programmes as major areas of activities :

  1. Strengthening and integrating disability prevention and rehabilitation in existing government services at the community level.
  2. Support for communications, including audio-visual and print media for advocacy, information and training.
  3. Support to research and planning, especially to studies which promote interventions that can be taken up by the community in rural areas and/or urban slums.
  4. Support for innovative projects at the community level, particularly those being run by NGOs.
  5. Monitoring and evaluation of ongoing programmes.

During the Master Plan of Operations (Bridge Programme) 1996–97, the main focus will be on -

  1. The convention on the rights of the child;
  2. National Plan and State Plan of Action for the prevention, early detection and intervention of childhood disability.

The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP)
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific at the 48th session, held at Beijing in 1992, adopted its Resolution No. 48/3 which proclaimed the period 1993–2002 as the Asian and the Pacific Decade of Disabled Persons, with a view to give fresh impetus to the implementation of World Programme of Action concerning disabled persons in the ESCAP Region beyond 1992. India is a signatory to the ESCAP Resolution. It had hosted UNESCAP Technical Workshop on the Production and Distribution of Indigenous Assistance Devices at Madras from 5 to 14 September, 1995, in which representatives of about 22 countries participated. India has been in the forefront of the international movement towards protecting the rights and interests of persons with disabilities. India was also an active partner in the International Year of the Disabled Persons; UN Decade of Disabled Persons; SAARC Year of Disabled Persons, 1993 and ESCAP. A comprehensive Law for Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 was enacted during this period which is an important landmark in the disability movement.

Grant-in-Aid Schemes of the Ministry of welfare

Assistance to Voluntary Organisations for Disabled
The scheme was started with a view to provide assistance to voluntary organisations working in the field of handicapped welfare. It is a comprehensive scheme to cover different areas of rehabilitation – physical, psychological, social and economic. Financial support is given up to the extent of 90 per cent of the total project cost (upto 95 per cent for the rural areas), for recurring items like staff salary, maintenance charges, contingencies and non-recurring items like construction of the building, Rs. 5 lakh. Financial assistance is given for such projects as vocational training centres, special schools, counselling centres, hostels, training centres for personnel, placement services, etc.
In 1995–96, 350 voluntary organisations in the country were assisted under this scheme. The number of beneficiaries was about 118268. The entire allocation of Rs. 16.70 crore was spent during 1995–96 under this scheme.

Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids/Appliances
The main objective of the scheme is to assist needy physically handicapped persons in procuring durable, sophisticated and scientifically manufactured aids and appliances that promote their physical, social and psychological rehabilitation. The scheme is implemented through centres run by the companies registered under Companies Act, registered societies, trusts or any other institutions recognised by the Ministry of Welfare for the purpose. A large number of governmental and non-governmental agencies are engaged for the implementation of the scheme. Aids and appliances such as wheelchairs, crutches, callipers, hearing aid, Braille slates, etc. are given to different categories of disabled persons. Indian citizens possessing a certificate from a registered medical practitioner can avail benefits under the scheme.
Disabled persons in need of aids and appliances are given travel allowance subject to a limit of Rs. 150/- for visit to implementing agencies’ centre. The board and lodging expenses at the rate of Rs. 10 per day subject to Rs. 150/- per beneficiary are also admissible in cases where the income of such persons is upto Rs. 1200/- per month.
There are at present 64 NGOs which are in the field in addition to the major national/ape level institutes working for the rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.
According to the scheme, aids and appliances upto the value of Rs. 3600/- are distributed to the disabled persons free of cost if the monthly income of the disabled is upto Rs. 1200/- and at 50 per cent of the cost if it is between R. 1201/- and Rs. 2500/-

Year-wise allocation, expenditure, number of NGOs assisted and number of beneficiaries are as under :

Year Allocation Expenditure Rs. in crore No. of NGOs No. of Beneficiaries
1992-93 10.00 7.09 61 45,000
1993-94 10.00 10.07 65 57,000
1994-95 13.00 15.77 78 85,000
1995-96 10.60 10.60 77 66,000

Assistance to Voluntary Organisations for the Rehabilitation of Leprosy-Cured Persons
India has a large population of leprosy-affected persons, the figure is estimated to be 4.50 lakh. The scheme is designed to provide financial assistance to NGOs in a phased manner for the rehabilitation of leprosy-cured persons both in rural and urban areas. Assistance is given upto 90 per cent of the project cost. Programmes like awareness generation, early intervention, educational and vocational training, economic rehabilitaiton, social integration, etc. are undertaken under the scheme.
Year-wise budget estimates, expenditure, number of NGOs assisted and the number of beneficiaries are as under:

Year Allocation Expenditure Rs. in crore No. of NGOs No. of Beneficiaries
1992-93 0.50 0.17 7 Not available
1993-94 0.40 0.41 17 1138
1994-95 0.40 1.69 32 5515
1995-96 1.25 1.00 22 1581

Assistance to Organisations for Persons with Cerebral Palsy and Mental Retardation
Under the scheme, assistance is given to NGOs upto the extent of 100 per cent for running training courses for teachers in the area of cerebal palsy and mental retardation. Both recurring and non-recurring items are considered for sanction.

Establishment and Development of Special Schools
The scheme envisages assistance to the NGOs upto the extent of 90 per cent for establishment and upgradation of special schools in the four major disability areas – orthopaedic, hearing and speech, visual and mentally retarded. Priority under the scheme is given for setting up of schools in districts where there is no special school at present. Both recurring and non-recurring expenditure is supported by the Ministry of Welfare.
The scheme was introduced in 1993–94 and circulated to the State Governments, UTs and NGOs. Proposals were invited from all appropriate agencies. It is expected that the scheme would become an important and popular scheme in the disability sector in the future. There is a dire need for opening at least one special school in each district for each disability. The scheme would cover 240 odd districts in the country which are still uncovered.
Year-wise allocation, expenditure, number of NGOs assisted and number of beneficiaries are as under :

Year Allocation Expenditure Rs. in crore No. of NGOs No. of Beneficiaries
1993-94 1.50 0.10 7 295
1994-95 1.50 0.32 42 2731
1995-96 0.75 0.75 28 1675

Science and Technology Development Projects in Mission Mode
With a view to provide suitable and cost-effective aids and appliances through the application of technology and also to improve the mobility, employment opportunities and integration of the disabled in the mainstream, the scheme of Science and Technology (S&T) - Project in Mission Mode was launched in 1988.
Science and Technology Projects in Mission Mode represent a new approach aimed at ensuring that emerging inter-disciplinary efforts to have the potential meet large scale societal/national needs, and can fulfil their potential in a time-targeted manner. The emphasis is on an end-to-end approach covering Research and Development as well as technological, financial, administrative and management aspects. These projects concentrate on new scientific inputs, generation of new technologies and guiding these to large scale use.
The objectives of such projects, are to coordinate, fund and direct application of technology for development and utilisation of: (a) suitable and cost effective aids and appliances, (b) emphasis on education and skill development leading to enhancement of opportunities for employment, easier living and integration in society. The Government of India had launched for the first five years a coordinated programme for developing aids and appliances for persons with disability. The financial assistance is provided on a 100 per cent basis.
During the year 1994–95 and 1995–96 the expenditure was Rs. 0.50 and Rs. 0.18 crore respectively against the allocation of Rs. 0.40 crore for each year. The allocation for the current year is Rs. 0.40 crore. The proposed outlay for the year 1997–98 is Rs. 1.00 crores.
The scheme is beneficial to the disabled persons of the country. So far, 45 projects have been identified for assistance and about 37 of them are at various stages of completion, some of them have also been put to commercial production. New projects are identified on a continuous basis keeping pace with the technological development within and outside the country.
Some of the important products developed for the use of persons with disabilities are as follows :

  1. Speech Synthesiser
  2. Interpointing Braille writing frame
  3. Close Circuit TV with magnification facility
  4. Photo-voltaic charger
  5. Safety devices for agricultural machinery
  6. Feeding aids for children with cerebral palsy
  7. Multifunctional wheel-chair
  8. Electronic guide stick
  9. Telefilm for training of parents of mentally retarded
  10. Video films on safe use of agricultural machinery
  11. Microprocessor based braille embosser.

Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
The Rehabilitation Council of India was set up as an autonomous body. It is an apex body to enforce uniform standards in the training of professionals in the field of rehabilitation of the physically handicapped in the country. The aims and objectives of the Council include :

  1. to prescribe minimum standards of education and training of individuals;
  2. to regulate these standards in government institutions throughout the country;
  3. to recognise educational qualifications;
  4. to recognise foreign educational qualifications;
  5. to withdraw recognition of defaulting institutions;
  6. to obtain information regarding education and training from institutions in India and abroad; and
  7. to maintain an Indian Rehabilitation Register.

Till March 1996, the Rehabilitation Council of India finalised 47 courses. The Council also organises Joint Entrance Examination on an All India basis for courses in Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Prosthetic and Orthotic Engineering conducted by Institutes under the control of Ministry of Welfare.
The Rehabilitation Council of India has now been given statutory status through an Act of Parliament, namely, the Rehabilitation Council India, Act, which enables it to shoulder responsibilities of regulating and training of the rehabilitation professionals. The Act has come into force.

District Rehabilitation Centres (DRCs)
The Ministry of Welfare, Government of India launched the District Rehabilitation Centre Scheme in early 1985 for providing comprehensive rehabilitation services to the rural disabled. The aims and objectives of the DRCs include surveys of disabled population, prevention, early detection and medical intervention and surgical correction, fitting of artificial aids and appliances, therapeutical services – physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy, provision of educational services in special and integrated schools, provision of vocational training, job placement in local industries and trades, self-employment opportunities, awareness generation for the involvement of community and family to create a cadre of multi-disciplinary professionals to take care of major categories of disabled in the district. At present, 11 DRCs are functioning in 10 States in India.

Regional Rehabilitation Training Centres (RRTCs)
Four Regional Rehabilitation Centres have been functioning under DRC Scheme at Bombay, Madras, Cuttack and Lucknow since 1985 for the training of village level functionaries, training of DRC professionals, orientation and training of State Government officials, research in service delivery and low cost aids, etc. Apart from developing training material and manuals for actual field use, RRTCs also produce material for creating community awareness through the medium of folders, posters, audio-visuals, films and traditional forms.

National Information Centre on Disability & Rehabilitation (NICDR)
A National Information Centre on Disability and Rehabilitation was set up under CACU in 1987 to provide a database for comprehensive information on all facilities and welfare services for the disabled within the country. It also acts as a nodal agency for awareness creation, preparation/collection and dissemination of materials/information on disablity relief and rehabilitation. The computerised data so far collected relates to institutions/professionals working for the disabled, aids and appliances, scholarships, national awards and physical/financial performance of DRCs/RRTCs. It publishes an Indian Journal of Disability and Rehabilitation, 13 issues of which have already been published.
The Media Cell is responsible for the publication of awareness-generation material/journals, hold Seminars/Workshops, organisation of Film Festival/Exhibitions, production of films, etc. UNICEF assistance is obtained for different activities on awareness creation.
The Government has set up a "National Council for Handicapped Welfare" with the following objectives :

  1. To ensure a co-ordinated and comprehensive approach to research, training and services for the disabled population;
  2. To evolve a National Plan of Action;
  3. To review legislative, administrative and other measures for the welfare of disabled;
  4. To evolve policy guidelines for the welfare and rehabilitation of the disabled persons; and
  5. To ensure people’s participation in the rehabilitation of the disabled.

National Handicapped Finance & Development corporation –
The Government has set up a National Handicapped Finance & Development Corporation with an authorised share capital of Rs 400 crore to make the persons with disabilities, productive and bring them into the mainstream of economic activity.

Public Awareness
The Ministry of Welfare lays great emphasis on public awareness of disability related issues. The Ministry of Welfare and National Institutes/Apex Level Institutes have prepared a number of documentary films and T.V. spots on issues relating to disability.
On the occasion of the World Disabled Day every year, the President of India gives away National Awards to :

  1. The Best Employee
  2. The Best Employer
  3. The Best Individual
  4. The Best Institution
  5. The Best Placement Officer

Accessibility and Communications
There has been a growing awareness and concern for the issues of a barrier free environment and easy access for persons with disabilities.
The new Disability Act, 1995 has a chapter on non-discrimination which inter alia provides for barrier free environment in transport, on roads and in the built environment. The chapter on education provides for barrier free environment in educational institutions.
Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped has developed a Loop Induction System, to facilitate communication of hearing impaired at crowded places like railway stations, etc. Initially 15 major Railway Stations are proposed to be fitted with the system. Delhi Railway Station has already been fitted with one.
National Institute for the Visually Handicapped has developed a low cost Brailler which is under production by Hindustan Tele Printer. The Government of India has also supported many Talking-Book projects for the visually impaired persons.

National Institutes/Apex Level Institutes :
The Government of India has set up National Institutes to provide a complete package of welfare services to persons with physical and mental disabilities and to deal with their multi-dimensional problems. The four major National Institutes are :

  1. National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped (NIMH), Secunderabad;
  2. Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped (NIHH), Bombay;
  3. National Institute for the Visually Handicapped (NIVH), Dehradun.
  4. National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Calcutta;

These institutes play a vital role in meeting the needs of trained manpower for services to the disabled. They offer a variety of long-term training programmes like Physiotherapy, Occupational Therapy, Education of the Deaf, Communication Disorders leading to the award of Degrees, Diplomas for course of shorter durations in the above disciplines as well as prosthetic and orthotic engineering and audiolgy, speech therapy as well as training of teachers. The institutes also cover a large number of short-term training courses, seminars, orientation courses and camps.

National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped, (NIMH) Secunderabad
The Institute was registered in 1984 under Societies Registration Act, 1860 as an autonomous body under the Ministry of Welfare, Government of India. The National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped (NIMH) is committed to develop models of care for the mentally handicapped persons, conduct resarech in the area of mental handicap, promote human resource development and work with mentally handicapped persons in the country. The aims and objectives of the institute are :

  1. to develop appropriate models of care and rehabilitation for the mentally retarded persons appropriate to Indian conditions.
  2. to develop manpower for delivery of services to the mentally handicapped.
  3. to identify, conduct and coordinate research in the area of mentally handicapped.
  4. to provide consultancy services to voluntary organisations in the area of mentally handicapped and to assist them wherever necessary.
  5. to serve as a documentation and information centre in the area of mental retardation.
  6. to acquire relevant data to assess the magnitude/causes, rural-urban composition, socio-economic factors, etc. of mental retardation in the country.
  7. to promote and stimulate growth of various kinds of quality sources in the country for persons with mental retardation throughout the country.

The headquarters of the institute is based at Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh. The Regional Centres of NIMH are located at Mumbai, Calcutta and New Delhi. In the following are the details of some of the programmes of NIMH :

Human Resource Development

  1. One year Diploma in Mental Retardation
    The Institute runs a one year Diploma Course in Mental Retardation. The total number of training centres being run under the aegis of this institute are 28. Each centre has 20 seats, thus the institute has raised the capacity to training 560 teachers every year.

  2. Bachelor’s Degree in Mental Retardation
    The three year Course of Bachelor’s Degree in Mental Retardatoin, affiliated to Osmania University since 1987, is an interdisciplinary course designed to train skilled manpower to provide comprehensive services to persons with mental retardation. The total number of students who have passed the BMR course are 106 so far.

  3. Diploma in Vocational Training and Employment (MR)
    Diploma in Vocational Training and Employment was started by the Institute in November, 1995 at two centres viz. Secunderabad and Chenna. 22 candidates were admitted in the first batch of the course while enrolment in the second batch has been 24.

  4. Refresher courses
    Four courses are conducted every year during the summer at headquarters and its regional centres at Delhi, Calcutta and Mumbai. These courses are attended by professionals who are given update on recent developments with the objective to enhance their knowledge and skill training and special education, assessment and intervention in language/communication aspects, development and implementation of individualised educational prgramme as also techniques of classroom management and early intervention programme.

Short Term Courses
Nearly 40 short-term courses are conducted by the institute covering the areas of special education, medical aspects, behaviour modification, urban and rural services, vocational training, speech and language training origrammes. The following are a few short term courses conducted at the Institute :

  1. Workshop on Basic Mental Retardation
  2. Orientation Camp on Special Olympics
  3. Workshop for Special Educators
  4. Orientation Programme for Multi-purpose Health Workers
  5. Training Programme for Speech Pathologists
  6. Training Programme for ICDS/Anganwadi Workers
  7. Workshop on Behaviour Modification
  8. Workshop for Psychologists.
  9. Parent Training Programmes.

Until now 721 parents have benefited under the Parent Training Programme. Details of the short term courses are as under :

Year No. of Participants No. of. Programmes
1991-92 632 23
1992-93 841 20
1993-94 970 24
1994-95 980 24

Research and Development Projects
Research projects have been taken up during the year 1995–96 with the help of Non-Government Organisations throughout the country and they were/are being continued during the year 1996–97.

Public Awareness
In order to create public awareness the institute has taken up several programmes.

Documentation and Dissemination
During 1995–96 the institute disseminated information on 1000 items comprising abstracts of journal articles, news items of interest of professionals. A bulletin service MENTARD is distributed to 600 organisations/professionals in the country. During 1995–96, 371 new books were added to the library. Exhibitions on mental retardation were also conducted.

The Institute provided general services and special services to the mentally retarded persons. Over the years 27,000 cases have been seen by the Institute.

Multi-Centre Collaborative Projects
The Institute launched multi-centre collaborative projects on vocational training and employment and urban slum services for mentally handicapped persons in collaboration with voluntary organisations. A multi-centre collaborative programme on early intervention in development delays in infants and toddlers at-risk was undertaken in collaboration with voluntary organisations.

Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for Hearing Handicapped (NIHH), Bombay
The Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped was established on 9 August, 1983 under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, as an autonomous body and under the administrative control of the Ministry of Welfare.

The main objectives of the Institute are :

  1. Development of manpower by undertaking or sponsoring the training of trainees and teachers, employment officers, psychologists, vocational counsellors and such other personnel as may be deemed necessary by the institute for promoting the education, training or rehabilitation of the hearing handicapped.
  2. To conduct, sponsor, coordinate and subsidise research into all aspects of the education and rehabilitation of the hearing handicapped.
  3. To develop model services for rehabilitation of the hearing handicapped.
  4. To serve as an apex information and documentation centre in the area of hearing handicapped.

The Institute has its regional centres in Calcutta, New Delhi and Hyderabad and State collaborated Centre in Bhubaneswar. In addition to this, the Institute also runs a Training Centre for the Adult Deaf in Hyderabad. The Institute runs the following programmes :

Manpower Development

Training Programme
The Institute conducts the following training programmes :

  1. B.Ed (Deaf)
  2. B.Sc (Audiology and Speech Pathology and B.Sc., Hearing, Language and Speech, HLS)
  3. Diploma in Education of the Deaf
  4. Diploma in Communication Disorders

B.Ed (Deaf) and B.Sc (Audiology and Speech Pathology) & B.Sc (HLS) are conducted in Bombay and are affiliated to The University of Bombay; B.Ed (Deaf) is also being conducted at Eastern Regional Centres, Calcutta and B.Sc (Ed) & B.Sc (HLS) at Southern Regional Centre, Hyderabad with affiliation to Calcutta and Osmania Universities respectively. The other two Diploma Courses have been recognised by the Rehabilitation Council of India. The Institute has trained more than 2000 students from 1986 to 1996.

Short Term Training Programmes
The Institute also conducts short term training programmes to meet the demands of the professional/academic personnel, unable to get admission for long-term training programmes, or for those who could not get training and are already working in voluntary, non-governmental organisations and other institutions dealing with rehabilitation of the hearing and speech impaired.

Research Programmes
The research work in the Institute is mainly community-based. Special projects aim at the rehabilitation of vast majority of handicapped located in semi-urban and rural areas. The Institute has already completed 7 research projects.

The Institute has been conducting pre-school, parent guidance and counselling services and also parent-infant orientation/training programmes, etc. The Institute also conducts diagnostic camps in different states and also conducts fit ment service programme for the children in special schools. Several community based programmes were executed in order to create awareness in the community, intervention, prevention and rehabilitation of the hearing impaired. Outreach and Extension Service Unit of the Institute has adopted various steps to reach the activities to the hearing impaired population in remote areas.

Service Programmes
The Institute has installed latest audiological equipments such as audiometers and other sophisticated equipments to provide service facilities. The Institute has also developed a laboratory for this purpose.

The Institute is rendering services in the following areas:

  1. Hearing evaluation
  2. Hearing aid trial, prescription, fitting and repairs
  3. Speech and Language Therapy
  4. Speech and Language Evaluation
  5. Parent guidance and counseling
  6. Psychological evaluation
  7. Psychotherapy, Behaviour Therapy and Play Therapy
  8. Educational evaluation
  9. ENT, Paediatric and Neurological evaluation
  10. Information services
  11. Vocational guidance, counselling and placement
  12. Outreach and Extension Service.

Year New Cases Old Cases
1991-92 11733 27067
1992-93 14308 23104
1993-94 10924 38029
1994-95 14980 36254
1995-96 15287 39960

Information and Documentation Centre
The Information and Documentation Centre is functioning with the aim to acquire relevant information and disseminate it to the organisations and individuals working for the hearing handicapped. The Information and Documentation Centre is provided with a computer unit, which facilitates software development, training of staff and students and data processing. To carry out these activities, the Institute has devloped infrastructure of 17 Personal Computers and one Mini Computer. The Centre’s library is very well-stocked.

National Institute for the Visually Handicapped (NIVH), Dehradun
The Institute was established in 1979 by upgrading National Centre for the Blind. It was registered as a Society in 1982 under Societies Registration Act, 1860, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Welfare. The present activities of the Institute are as follows :

  1. Education
  2. Vocational Training
  3. Manpower Development
  4. Research and Development
  5. Crisis Management including therapeutic assistance
  6. Placement and employment
  7. Production of reading material
  8. Manufacture of aids and appliances, and
  9. Library and Information Services.

Education for the Visually Handicapped
The Institute has a Model School for the Visually Handicapped which provides education to the blind, partially sighted and low-vision children from Nursery to Class X. The blind children are taught through Braille and tactile sensation whereas the partially sighted and low vision children make use of magnifying devices to read the printed text. The scholars are provided with free board, lodging, clothing, tuition and other facilities besides monthly pocket money.

Workshop for the Manufacture of Braille Appliances :
Various aids and appliances like Braille slate, Taylor Frame, Abacus, Stylus, Chess Board, Playing Cards, Pocket Frame, Folding Stick, Braille Scale, Geo Boards, Diagram Boards, Braille Shorthand Machine etc. are being manufactured. The Institute’s Braille Press is producing reading material in Braille for the use of blind readers.

Vocational Training :
The Training Centre for the Adult Blind imparts vocational training to the adult blind men and women between 18-40 years of age in a variety of vocational crafts like Light Engineering, Weaving, Candle Making, Chalk Making, Detergent Power Making, Stenography (Hindi and English), Electronics and Mechanical Assembly, etc.

National Library for the Print Handicapped :
The Institute has a National Library for the print/visually handicapped. The Library offers free lending services to the visually handicapped readers all over the country. It has 45,948 Braille volumes and 7,761 print books. The Library has a total membership of 2,980 persons.

Crisis Management
The Institute’s Crisis Management Unit provides therapeutic assistance to newly blinded persons at their home and at the Institute. It also provides guidance and counselling to school children, trainees of training centres and to the parents of the visually handicapped.

Manpower Development
The Institute conducts long-term as well as short term training programmes for various professionals engaged in the service for the blind. During 1995–96, 12 long-term and 20 short-term courses were conducted.

Training Course for Secondary School Teachers of the Visually Handicapped
The Institute conducts training courses for secondary school teachers of the visually handicapped at its campus, the Blind Relief Association, New Delhi and the Blind Boy’s Academy, Narendrapur, West Bengal.

State Level Training Course for Primary School Teachers of the Visually Handicapped
The Institute, in collaboration with the concerned State Governments, is conducting training programmes for primary school teachers of the visually handicapped in Bhubaneswar (Orissa), in Hyderabad (Andhra Pradesh) and in Patna (Bihar).

Research and Development
The Institute taken up a large number of new projects in the recent past.

Sheltered Workshop and other Programmes :
The Institute has a Sheltered Workshop and Units for rural extension programme, management of the newly blinded, home management, guidance and counselling orientation and mobility services.

New Activities :
The Institute has recently started education programmes for visually handicapped students with additional disabilities. The Institute has also started to publish a Weekly New